A very good article, but fails to address the asymmetry of current conflicts. How do we interpret compliance with the policy for those belligerents who lack the resources to deploy weapons in the manner discussed. Western nations with their superior access to intelligence and their more accurate weapon systems can more objectively assess proportionality. But non-Western States, particularly those denied access to precision weapons (eg via embargoes), cannot do so and thus their use of weapons can seem (from a Western perspective at least) to be disproportionate. This raise the question as to whether proportionality has to be judged in the context of the capabilities of the particular belligerent?