Interesting,in my mind the only system that can replace hierarchical structure is a collaborative structure. This can be anarchic or not, it doesn’t matter. This structure main aspects are : those that do are empowered (solution and plan/execution) — clients hand in hand with realization — strategy always aligned with tactic — quality is fostered by experts training, mentoring and coaching — facilitation and coordination supports efficient collaboration which is the core. This follows Darwin finding that adaptive entities are more efficient, and that collaborating will maximize this adaptation. There is nothing else than that, the rest are just technique, tools, roles and methods to apply this.