For anyone interested in learning more about this, I highly recommend checking out the work of Yukai Chou, one of the pioneers of this field. He’s published a book called “Actionable Gamefication” which thoroughly outlines every aspect of this design approach.
While game-like mechanics such as leaderboards, points, stickers, etc. can be a part of this ideology, it’s much more psychological than anything else and requires a heavy understanding of human behavior. You can’t simply plug in these game elements and say you “gamefied” your design—that is a fast and easy way to fail and get no results.