In terms of technology, ATLANT Platform is a standalone P2P network with the custom protocol built for purposes of digitizing real estate in a decentralized way. This network is governed by Ethereum smart contracts (ATLANT DAO family), implementing and enforcing rules for entities
to interact in tokenizing property or rentals.
Ethereum platform with its virtual machine (EVM) is by now the most established blockchain-based distributed computing platform with smart contract functionality. It powers both tokenization and contracting aspects of the ATLANT Platform.
The platform implements its own protocol, responsible for data distribution and mirroring, historic versioning of documents, distributed data storage, arbitration and reputation in the decentralized network. The rest is implemented in the form of Ethereum smart contracts and
executed by EVM: DAO family, voting on proposals, escrow, core and property tokens, rental agreements and auxiliary contracts. The ATLANT protocol provides a bridge, connecting the ATLANT network with the Ethereum-based smart contract infrastructure governing the ATLANT
ATLANT Technology Stack
ATLANT Platform software components are being developed using the following stack:
We apply appropriate technology in accordance with the tasks to be accomplished.
Our core node software which is doing the heavy-lifting is written in Golang and utilizes a modified IPFS node.
Smart contract family is written in the Solidity language native to the Ethereum platform.
Ethereum was chosen as the most trustworthy environment for execution of Turing complete smart contracts.
Web client development is among our top priorities because it simplifies working with the ATLANT Platform and will ultimately contribute to mass adoption of said platform. It is built with the VueJS frontend framework.
ATLANT Software Components
ATLANT Platform comprises the following software components:
ATLANT core node software is the low-level component, containing implementation of the ATLANT protocol (atlant-go). Core node software is responsible for running the ATLANT P2P network and managing data flow through, establishing the data tier of the ATLANT Platform. Core
node utilizes a modified IPFS node, which is capable of historic versioning, mirroring and reliable data distribution across the ATL network. ATL node handles several data structures, including property documents, arbiter registry, ratings and reviews data, peer identities, Ricardian contracts. Node software contains an implementation of ADDS, which is built on top of IPFS to provide a reliable way of distributed data storage. The atlant-go component utilizes go-ipfs and go-onion-transport for the purposes of data distribution. We have selected the IPFS protocol due to its principles of decentralization and support for data encryption and historic versioning
(similar to git). Desktop client communicates directly to the ATLANT node and represents the presentation tier of the ATLANT Platform. It interacts with the Ethereum network directly and contains a contract creation toolset. Depending on the user role (e.g. host), the client offers a set of ready-to-use
contract templates and additionally a smart contracts designer. Once the contract is created, the client provides it in two versions: Ricardian contract and the EVM contract. Users is requested to digitally sign the Ricardian version of the contract in order to proceed with its deployment. Once
the Ricardian contract is signed, desktop client interlinks it with the EVM contract, hashes the whole contract and creates the Ethereum transaction containing the Ricardian contract hash digest. Once the transaction gets broadcasted and subsequently confirmed, desktop client passes the signed Ricardian contract to the node, which in turn inserts it into the ADDS. The client supports several roles, including property developer, tenant and arbiter. It has a built-in wallet dedicated for storage and use of the platform tokens (ATL), property tokens and Ether. Voting on proposals is available for ATL token holders and property token holders. Opt-in identity management is supported (via Keybase and in the future, other identity providers).
Web client shares the functionality of the atlant-desktop component, but communicates with remote ATLANT nodes for complete functionality. Although this approach harms decentralization
in the short term, we believe it will lead to global adoption and fast-paced growth of the ATLANT Platform. Independent nodes will continue to operate as standalone applications powering the ATL network even after the full-featured release of platform’s web version.
DAO component (atlant-dao) comprises a set of EVM smart contracts written in Solidity. These contracts govern core platform changes, property tokenization, token exchange and peer-to-peer rentals by creating a business logic tier. This is a high-level component, forming a framework of self-enforcing agreements between multiple parties in the field of real estate. Some examples are smart contracts in the atlant-dao component which regulate and enforce agreements between the platform DAO and lessors, property token holders and the management company,the platform DAO and property DAOs, tenants and lessors. Further, a special ADEX contract
establishes a decentralized exchange of the platform tokens, property tokens and Ether.
The Ricardian contract is a method of recording a document as a contract at law, and linking it securely to other systems, such as the accounting system, for the contract as an issuance of value.
RC is a software design pattern to digitize documents and have them participate within financial transactions, such as payments, without losing any of the richness of the contracting tradition.
Publication of the content and reference to that content by the unique cryptographic message digest eliminates frauds based on multiple presentations.
The final goal of the Ricardian contract is to make the contract’s format both machine readable, such that they can easily be extracted for computational purposes, and readable as an ordinary text document such that lawyers and contracting parties may read the essentials of the contract conveniently.
Technically, Ricardian contract is a digitally signed and cryptographically verified electronic document that records an agreement between multiple parties, formatted to be human and machine-readable (e.g. JSON format18). By applying a cryptographic hash function (one-way
hashing) to the RC, we receive the Ricardian contract digest as an output, which is immediately recorded into the blockchain. This eliminates possibility of forging the RC, as any change to its data would completely change an overall Ricardian contract digest. World’s most established
blockchains Bitcoin and Ethereum guarantee that any Ricardian contract digest would remain unchanged once the transaction containing that digest is included into the blockchain block. In order to be recognized as a valid RC, contract’s digest should match the one stored in the blockchain. This ensures that none of counterparties are able to amend the terms of agreements
retroactively, eliminating potential disputes that may arise from hearsay claims between counterparties.
At ATLANT, we use Ricardian contracts in addition to EVM contracts to ensure that smart contracts have a legal force. This is implemented by using both the Ethereum blockchain and ATLANT distributed data store. We have applied the principles described above and extended them as follows:
Every deployed EVM contract has a corresponding Ricardian contract (interlinked by
pointing at each other’s unique IDs)
Every Ricardian contract linked to an EVM contract is stored in ADDS
Every Ricardian contract stored in ADDS has its Ricardian contract digest stored in them Ethereum blockchain
This approach ensures that one cannot forge a smart contract address inside the RC, as this change would prevent the Ricardian contract from being recognized as a valid contract.
Ricardian contracts used by the ATLANT Platform are legally binding contracts, the terms of which will be unequivocally interpreted by courts of law. Digitally signed and cryptographically verified, these RCs point to corresponding EVM contracts, which ensure the implementation of
agreements at the application level.