know About Head & Neck Cancers With Eye Cancer

The oral cavity includes the lips, the inside lining and the cheeks (buccal mucosa), the teeth, the gums, the front two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth below the tongue, the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate), and the area behind the wisdom teeth (retro molar trigon).

Oropharyngeal cancer develops in the part of the throat just behind the mouth, called the oropharynx. The oropharynx begins where the oral cavity ends. It also includes the base of the tongue (the back third of the tongue), the soft palate, the tonsils and the tonsillar pillars, and the back wall of the throat (the posterior pharyngeal wall).

The oral cavity and oropharynx are useful in breathing, talking, eating, chewing and swelling. Minor salivary glands located throughout the oral cavity and oropharynx make saliva that keeps the mouth moist and helps digest food.

The oral cavity and oropharynx contain several types of tissue and each of these tissues contain several types of cells. Different cancers can develop from each kind of cell.

More than 90% of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx are squamous cell carcinomas, also called squamous cell cancers. Squamous cells are flat scale-like cells that normally form the lining of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Squamous cell cancer begins as a collection of abnormal squamous cells. The earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called carcinoma in situ, meaning that the cancer cells are present only in the lining layer of cells called the epithelium. Invasive squamous cell cancer means that the cancer cells have spread beyond this layer into deeper layers of the oral cavity or oropharynx.

Hypo pharynx Cancer

Hypo pharynx is the end part of the throat or the pharynx. This is a 5-inch long hollow tube extending from behind the nose and going down to become part of the oesophagus. Air and food pass through pharynx from the way on to the trachea or the oesophagus respectively.

In the cancer that originates from the hypo pharynx, the cancer cells are mostly squamous cells, which are flat and scaly cells. A small portion of cancer could also be lymphomas, i.e., non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Hypo pharyngeal cancer usually spreads through the lymphatic system. And the cancerous cells are carried along by the lymph’s, which are colourless fluid containing cells that help fight infections and disease.

Laryngeal cancer

The larynx is a two-inch long organ in the neck. The larynx in used by humans to talk, breathe or swallow. It is made of cartridge. The main cartilage which forms the front of the larynx is also called as Adam’s apple.

Just behind the trachea and the larynx in the neck lies the food pipe or the oesophagus, which carries the food from the mouth to the stomach. The opening of the oesophagus and the larynx are adjacent to each other in the throat.

When we swallow food, a small flap called the epiglottis moves down to cover the larynx in order to prevent the food from going down the wrong passage and into the lungs.

Nasopharynx cancer

The nasopharynx is the area in the back of the nose towards the base of the skull. The nasopharynx is a box like organ about 1.5 inches in size. It lies just above the soft palate, behind the entrance into the nasal passages. It tends to spread very rapidly. The nasopharynx contains several types of cells. Different cancers can develop in each type of cell.

Nasal cavity & Para nasal sinus cancer

The nose opens into the nasal passageway, or cavity. This cavity runs along the top of the palate, and turns downward to join the passage from the mouth to the throat.

Para nasal sinus means in the vicinity of the sinus area. They are cavities of small tunnels. The nasal cavity and Para nasal sinuses help filter, warm, and humidify the air we breathe. They also provide resonance to the voice, lighten the skull, and provide a bony frame work for the face and eyes.

The nasal cavity and Para nasal sinuses are lined by a layer of mucus-producing tissue called mucosa. The mucosa has multiple types of cells including.

-Squamous epithelial cells, which are lining cells and form the majority of the mucosa.

-Glandular cells, such as minor salivary glands etc. which produce mucus and other fluids.

-Nerve cells which are responsible for sensation and the sense of smell in the nose.

-Infection fighting cells which are part of the immune system, blood vessel cells, and other supporting cells

All of these cells that make up the mucus can become cancerous.

-Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type.

-Adenocarcinoma — Cancer of the glandular cells.

-Malignant lymphomas — Cancer arising out of lymph or immune system cells.

-Malignant melanoma — Cancer of pigment or skin color containing cells.

-Papilloma’s — Wart-like growths that are not cancer, but have a potential to become cancerous.

Eye cancer (Retinoblastoma)

The retina is a lining of nervous tissues located at the back of the two eyes. It is a photosensitive layer, that is, it is responsible for sensing light and forming images.

Cancer of the rating is called retinoblastoma. It can occur at any age. It can appear in any one of theeye, or both the eyes. Usually, the tumour is confined to the eye socket without spreading to the adjacent tissues.

Retinoblastoma has a tendency to be hereditary. This type of cancer often is seen in children.

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