Anglo-Afghan War’s Afghanistan.
Writer: M Ali Mazlumyar
The First Anglo-Afghan War (also known as Auckland’s Folly) was fought between the British East India Company and Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842. It is famous for the killing of 4,500 British and Indian soldiers, plus 12,000 of their camp followers, by Afghan tribal fighters, but the British defeated the Afghans in the concluding engagement. It was one of the first major conflicts during the Great Game, the 19th century competition for power and influence in Asia between the United Kingdom and the Russian Empire.
The Second Anglo–Afghan War (Pashto: د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan. This was the second time British India invaded Afghanistan. The war ended after the British emerged victorious against the Afghan rebels and the Afghans agreed to let the British attain all of their geopolitical objectives from the Treaty of Gandamak. Most of the British and Indian soldiers withdrew from Afghanistan. The Afghan tribes were permitted to maintain internal rule and local customs but they had to cede control of the area’s foreign relations to the British, who, in turn, guaranteed the area’s freedom from foreign military domination. This was aimed to thwart expansion by the Russian Empire into India.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War (Pashto: د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919. According to British author Michael Barthorp, it was a minor tactical victory for the British because the Durand Line was reaffirmed as the political boundary between the Emirate of Afghanistan and British India and the Afghans agreed not to foment trouble on the British side. The Afghans were able to resume the right to conduct their own foreign affairs as a fully independent state.