Reframing The Problem

(Fig: 3.1) The Design Process Simplified (Ling, 2008)

The design and creative process can sometimes be simplified to a squiggle (Fig: 3.1), the core question of the beginning of a project from point (A) Don’t -Know and the chaotic F.O.G (Straker, 1997), to an end point solution (B) Could-be or Should-be. With cultural observations, tools and prototyping it can assist in validation and resolution. (Fig: 3.2)

(Fig: 3.2) Design Probes & Context-mapping (Ling, 2008)

According to Don Norman, the human-centred design process (HCD) Starts by Understanding of People (guests or customers) and the Needs that the design is intended to meet. (Norman, 2013) Numerous companies, organisations and educational institutions have taken on this challenge and have therefore come up with models in order to provide structure to the process. (Gardner, 2015)

(Fig: 3.3) The Field Guide to Human-Centred Design Process (IDEO, 2015)

IDEO’s Human-Centred Design ideology (Fig: 3.3) or Stanford’s’’s Design Thinking process (Fig: 3.4) provides structure, underpinning and empathising with users and then applying it to business. (Brown and Katz, 2009)

(Fig: 3.4) Stanford Design Thinking Process (Hasso, 2010)

“These revealing real life stories and patterns of users process allow for a more honest open system for individuals evolved within the process. Crossing boundaries and allowing experiences beyond the senses.”
- Alastair Somerville, Director of Sensory Design at Acuity Design

Ever-evolving, one of the most respected design process employed within the industry is The Double Diamond, (Fig: 3.5) developed by the British Design Council in 2005, it includes various stages and planes of thinking. (Fig: 3.6) (Design Council, 2007)

(Fig: 3.5) Design Council’s Double Diamond (Design Council, 2007)
(Fig: 3.6) Design for Service Innovation and Development (Imagination Lancaster, 2007)
“The Double Diamond is the simplest shape to connect ideas, codifying experiences by tapping into our emotions and redefining our physical world.”
- Ed Gardiner, Behavioural Design Lead at Warwick Business School
(Fig: 3.7) Insights & Methods from Behavioural Science (Gardner, 2015)

Praised for its ability to inclusively gather both Divergent (quantitative) and Convergent (qualitative) insights and shaped by people (Fig: 3.7) (Cooper-Wright, 2016) IDEO looks to explore beyond the message by following the users true Needs, Desires and Objectives. Further by understanding the identities the cultural context it can be gathered, measured, and built into measurable supporting services and products. (Gardner, 2015)



ACUITY DESIGN: Somerville, Alastair. (2016) Sensory & Accessible Design. (Somerville, 2016)

DESIGN COUNCIL & WARRICK UNIVERSITY: Gardiner, Ed. (2016) Applying insights & methods from behavioural science. (Gardiner, Ed.)

IDEO: Cooper-Wright, Matt. (2016) Understanding People. (Cooper-Wright, 2016)


Hasso, P. (2010) An Introduction to Design Thinking Process Guide. Available at:


Brown, T. and Katz, B. (2009) Change by design: How design thinking creates new alternatives for business and society. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers. (Brown and Katz, 2009)

IDEO (2015) The Field Guide to Human-Centered Design. IDEO. (IDEO, 2015)

Norman, D.A. (2013) The design of everyday things. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Norman, 2013)

Straker, D. (1997) Rapid problem- solving with post-it notes. Tucson, AZ: Da Capo Press. (Straker, 1997)


Design Council (2007) Eleven lessons: Managing design in eleven global brands. Available at:

Gardner, S. (2015) The Design Process. Available at: http://www.sarahgardnerdesign. com/new-blog-2/2015/4/30/the-design- process.

Imagination Lancaster (2016) Design for Service Innovation and Development Available at:

Ling, B. (2008) The design process Simplifed. Available at: