Can something disappear and appear in a different place?
Anyone who is sane would tell you “no”. It is physically impossible. Uncontrolled and spontaneous disappearance seems to be irrational. Imagine that for example you place a pen on your desk. If you place this pen in a specific position, this pen will not disappear. You will find the same pen a second later or even the next day, unless someone will move it away. It’s seems to be rational, but not if we look at our diamond from a different perspective.
What if we look at this object from a different perspective? According to proposed in early 80’s of the last century, every particle or sub-particle is a presentation of the vibrating string. This theory, although can’t be yet experimentally proven due to our technological limitations, seems to be the key element in the solution for a conflict between quantum physics and Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. Scientists in this way attempt to connect chaotic and unpredictable quantum world with linear and predicable macro world, which we observe in our day to day life, that describe the same properties of our universe.
The string theory basically tells us that any particle that constructs our matter is a string. That would mean that any quark that constructs protons and neutrons, the same as electrons or photons are just vibrating tiny strings of energy. Our pen is a construction of vibrating in the specific pattern strings.
How tiny those strings are? According to theoretical physicists, the length of the string is equal to a length of Planck length, that is or 10−35 meters. No wonder, that such a small scale can’t be yet measured by any available technique. We just don’t have sophisticated enough machines which would allow us to probe the element at the Planck scale.
How would be look like our universe in the micro scale? If we describe our space using our traditional dimensions such as height, width, and depth, we should assume that vibrations of strings should be confined within a cube with dimensions equal to a Planck length. Here is a trick. We usually perceive space and time as linear continuum, but in fact space and time can be also discrete. Our space-time can be represented as a matrix of very tiny adjacent to each other cubes. In fact, Italian physicist, Piero Caldirola proposed a concept of quanta of time in 1980, called Chronon. A similar presumption about space-time quantization was proposed out by Professor David Finkelstein in Georgia Institute of Technology, who was working on reconciling the fundamental concepts and principles of quantum theory and space-time theory. If time can be represented as a discrete spectrum, it would be correct to say that also space can be represented in the same way.
To illustrate it, imagine you look a large font representing letter C on your computer screen. You will see nice and smooth curves that shape this letter. Now, if you take the stronger magnifying glass, you will see a collection of pixels that are separated from each other. Analogically cube that is a part of the space-time fabric is like a pixel what you see on the computer screen. Our perception mater will depend on how deeply we probe that matter.
What does it have to do with disappearance? If mentioned above pen would stay in exactly the same position all the time, it won’t disappear. We can all agree on that. The problem however is that the entire universe is in constant motion, and in fact it moves pretty fast. To just give you an idea: equatorial speed of our planet Earth is 465.1 m/s, Earth’s average orbital speed around the sun is about 30000 m/s. Think about it, for someone who observers our planet from a distant location above our solar system, you and your pen travels with a speed of 13. 95 million meters per second! This is not the end, our solar system travels around the centre of the Milky Way Galaxy with a speed of 828,000 km/h. Relatively to point of observation, you will never in the same position like you were a second ago, you will be millions of meters away. This is a reason why people who work in space programs have to do quite complex calculations to predict a landing of satellite in the specific location.
So what might be happening here? Let’s imagine an electron travelling through vacuum space and let’s imagine that instead of electron we see moving towards a vibrating string of energy. If we look at this string really closely and observe its movement in a slow motion, we realise that it has this string has to disappear in one cube, and appear in the next one, towards directions of the movement. It will again disappear and reappear again in adjacent cube. Now if we see this observe this electron from a distance, moving very fast, we will see that it will disappear in one cube, and appear in cube located in a completely different place. Where this electron will appear? That would depend how we would measure its velocity relative to us. If we would travel with this electron, for us, this electron wouldn’t move at all, it will be in the same place, but not for someone who observes this movement from the distance. If we add on the top of that, all mentioned above velocities, such as velocity of travelling Earth around the sun and so on, we would be never able to predict the absolute position for this electron, since we can’t really know how fast it would travel.
To further complicate this problem, let’s take our electron out of a vacuum and place it within the atom. We know that electrons move within the orbit that is presentable as energy level. Since the position and momentum of the electron within the orbit cannot be determined according to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, the orbit is represented as probability cloud, in which electron can be found. Although those clouds present energy level, the clouds have defined certain shapes. It is assumed that the electron can take any position and momentum within the cloud, and it is can be represented as superposition of eigenstates. When the electron emits or absorbs energy, it changes its energy level, and jumps into next cloud. We only can determine the eigenstate of electrons within specific cloud, but how exactly electron jumps from one cloud to another, remains unclear. It sounds a bit odd, but electron has to disappear somehow on one cloud and reappear on the other.
While it is quite easy to illustrate what happen with electron travelling within a vacuum or within single atom, it may be quite difficult to comprehend what happens in larger objects such as our pen. To simplify scenario, let’s replace our pen with diamond for a moment. Diamond is a simple construction of specifically arranged and connected to each other carbon atoms. If we perceive diamond as an aggregation connected to each other energy strings that is moving from one place to another within spatiotemporal matrix, you will see that strings that previously constructed a diamond molecule now construct probably on molecule of gas, for example oxygen, that it element of air (something that is left after diamond being moved). Each string would need to change its vibrating pattern to become a part of the newly formed molecule. Since everything is in constant motion, this pattern is constantly changing.
Some of us might think that perhaps space is also moving along with our object. It does not sound to be rational, however, we rather move across time and space, not the other way around. Since we move along with our object across the matrix, we are not able to perceive it.
What happens then with our diamond? The entire molecular structure has to be transferred somewhere else in the space. The vibration pattern has to be recreated so molecule of diamond can be reconstructed thousands of meters away. The information about vibration pattern would have to be instantly from one location to another. Could it have something to do with quantum teleportation?
Is it possible that something can disappear and appear in different places? It seems that physically it is quite possible, depending on our observation. This strange phenomenon, not only could describe characteristic of the electron, but also any other particle. Any piece of matter, such as our diamond or our pen could constantly disappear and appear in a different place and space, and that would include you and me. If this theory is real, how can we prove it? What would happen to us during a jump from one place to another? How far in time and space can we jump? Can mathematical equations provide an answer to those questions? I will leave it to the physicists.