From the content of this article I think there are two sources of information you would very much enjoy. Both overlap your ideas but also extend them.
- “On Intelligence: How a New Understanding of the Brain Will Lead to the Creation of Truly Intelligent Machines” by Jeff Hawkins theorizes that the brain is purely a discrete signals processing engine (all inputs are indistinguishable electrical signals by the time they get to the brain and neurons either fire or not) that works by memory and forecasting. The reason the brain works so efficiently is that it only processes the differences between the inputs and what our memory+forecasting predicted.
- There is a new theory of physics that began with the single assumption that there are no infinities (large or small) in physics, so ultimately both matter and space must be discrete — that is, there is a smallest particle of space (like pixels on a monitor) and a smallest particle of matter, from which all other types of matter are formed. The parallel with your article is that from this discreteness, the theory has been spectacularly successful at describing all the complexity around us, explaining the results of all known physics anomalies, and making predictions that are unique to itself and relatively easily tested. The key point is that, with the assumption of discreteness, this theory only requires integer math, with summation formulas being the most complex thing needed. All the more complex math is just to tame the fact that the numbers get very large. My point is that like your article about the brain, wonderful complexity can emerge from a very simple, discrete basis. If I’ve intrigued you, you might want to go to QuantumGeometryDynamics.com and read the short paper called “An Axiomatic Approach to Physics” (the second link on the right side).