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Figure 1. Banksy mural; worker removing UK’s star in EU flag (Dover). 2017.

Tim Marshalls’ Divided summarises the crisis quite well, stating that as the migrant crisis steadily developed from 2011 to date, so did nationalist politicians stoking fears of immigration and Islam. This article will attempt to summarise the timeline and briefly analyse how the crisis impacted the EU, in addition to what it means for the solidarity of the European Union in a wider geo-political and social context.

Following an array of conflicts in Africa and the Middle-East, due to the increasing influence of extremist groups such as ISIS and its various cells in said regions, alongside resistance against authoritarian regimes, millions of refugees fled into Europe, in an attempt to be safe from harm and build a better future for themselves. However, this caused a dividing chasm in the European Union, as a consensus could not be built in order to deal with the refugee crisis and each country wished to deal with it by its own means as the fires of nationalism became stoked one by one. Some nations such as Germany held open arms, welcoming migrants with supplies, whereas other nations such as Hungary began establishing camps for migrants surrounded by barbed wire — leaving migrants to pile up in Southern & Eastern Europe, causing a humanitarian crisis and ‘bottleneck’ problem whilst reinforcing the crumbling influence of the European Union. …

“I do not fight fascists because I will win. I fight fascists because they are fascists.”— Chris Hedges

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Figure 1. Sir Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists. Source.

Modern Context

This article is in response to the ever growing concerns of Donald Trump’s notably anti-democratic behaviour, enabling a swathe of white-supremacists and ultra-nationalists to take pride in both their ideologically & sociopolitical xenophobic & violent understandings. Additionally, there is an ever-growing tide of white-supremacists, ultra-nationalists and anti-immigrant movements in Eastern Europe (Poland & Hungary). Such groups are currently considered a threat to modern democracy & global security, therefore they must be regarded with a certain level of severity and gravitas — as they represent a considerable portion of a given nation’s electorate.

This article will serve as a beginner’s guide to fascism within a limited context, in order to provide a suitable level of understanding to the reader — in addition to expanding upon any pre-existing knowledge on the topic that said reader may have. It shall also included links and references to other media sources to help provide more educational context, as the article itself draws from a wide spectrum of resources. …

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Following various discussions, both in the media and online on how the government (specifically the United Kingdom) can make a full economic recovery in the long term, there has been a significant uptick in the discussion of infrastructure investment. This article aims to clarify what such a discussion entails, the contextual basics, benefits and potential avenues of pursuit in such an endeavor.

What is infrastructure?

It is regarded as the generalised term for the minimal systems of businesses, regions and nations. There are eight principal categories.

  1. Highways, Streets & Roads.
  2. Bridges.
  3. Mass transit; Airports & Airways.
  4. Water Supply & Resources.
  5. Waste Management & Waste Water Management. …

“The great dragon was hurled down — that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan, who leads the whole world astray.” [Revelation 12:9]

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Aberdeen Bestiary, Depicting the Panther defending a herd, whilst facing his enemy the Dragon. Folio 9r c.1200 — Source


In the 9th century AD, John the Scot wrote “Do you not see that man is in all the animals and they are in him, but that man is above them all?”, in his publication ‘On the Division of Nature’. This question reigned true for many contemporary societies that spanned across the European continent throughout the middle ages. …

“Nationalism is power hunger tempered by self-deception” — George Orwell.

Highlights era of ‘romantic nationalism’ alternatively known as romanticism (19th century). Legitimisation of governance.
Highlights era of ‘romantic nationalism’ alternatively known as romanticism (19th century). Legitimisation of governance.
Figure 1. Episode of the September Days 1830 (on the Grand Place of Brussels) by Gustave Wappers, c. 1835. Source: WikiMedia Commons

Introduction & Assumptions

The following are the assumptions of this research article that lay the groundwork for the overall argument — founded by both theoretical understandings and historical events.

Firstly, states and/or nation-states are the main actors on the global stage. There are two tiers of state actors, according to power-balancing theory; global hegemons (i.e. US, China, Russia) and secondary states (i.e. Poland, Hungary, India, Pakistan, etc). This article focuses on the western world and therefore the US as the region’s main hegemon, however, the article also understands that Russia and China are global leaders in their respective regions (i.e. China through the Belt Road Initiative). Hegemons hold significant influence in globalisation and transnationalism in their respective regions, which in turn facilitates global cooperation and is itself facilitated by ‘strategic restraint’. This verifies that nationalism-centric abrasive foreign policy can disrupt global security and cooperation. …

“Knowledge of the past and of the places of the earth is the ornament and food of the mind of man.” — Leonardo da Vinci

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Figure 1. The Course of Empire ‘Destruction’, by Thomas Cole, c. 1836. Source: Wikimedia Commons

The objective of this brief article is to present one’s perspective regarding the renaissance and its impact on European nation state building in a variety of dynamics. This shall be done through a brief review of the historical and religious context of the Mediterranean world prior to the renaissance and the key elements of the contemporary secular and religious separation, followed by a short assessment of both the cultural and political developments that followed in the gradual development of democratic nation-states in Europe.

As noted by Bollack, even during the time of Sophocles’ Antigone, literature served as an expression of “political, social, and intellectual aporia”. However, following the introduction of Christianity on the European stage with Roman Emperor Constantine’s conversion in the 4th century AD, religion soon became an increasingly prominent factor in world literature (with respect to the contemporary known European world). Over the following centuries, Christianity allowed literature to stray from the classical traditions and be replaced by a strong focus on ecclesiastical writings and the limited production of bibles alongside other scriptures in Latin (most typically) — a language not truly understood by the citizenry and therefore limited interpretation and individualism (to be discussed later). …

“Philosophers until now have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it.” — Karl Marx, Eleven Theses on Feuerbach.

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Figure 1. Seaport at Sunrise, by Claude Lorrain, c. 1639 [Height of Mercantilism]. Source: Wikimedia Commons


This article will briefly discuss relevant world history to provide context, then present an analysis of the works of both Adam Smith and Karl Marx, in contrast to one another — in order to present a theoretical understanding of the foundations of modern capitalism and basic economics. Following this, I shall draw my own conclusions on the matter regarding progressive reform.

As this article will draw from various sources, a complete list of references is available at request — email in bio — specifically for those who wish to further educate themselves on this matter. …

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Figure 1. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez. Source.

The excitement Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (AOC) brings to the table is unparalleled. She provides a beacon of hope for the electorate of a new-age, that is consistently in conflict with the old-guard attempting to solidify its brutal grip on the political system of the US — with exception of brilliant politicians such as Bernie Sanders — highlighted by the riots and protests following the death of George Floyd and the response from current ‘leaders’.

“she’s been able to effectively push back on the smears, and if the new members of Congress are any indication, Americans are eager for younger, more diverse leadership.” — Who’s Afraid of AOC? …

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Figure 1. JFK & Nikita Khrushchev. Source: Flickr

Established as a formal discipline during World War Two, the theory of realism emphasises the competitive and conflicting natures between hegemonic powers in the sphere of international relations, with the core assumption that world politics is another battleground for nations to compete on. A contrasting theory would be ‘liberalism’. Earliest examples of realism being presented with regard to conflict or foreign policy was in “The History of the Peloponnesian War” (431–404 BCE) by Thucydides, who had a first hand account of the war.

While there are various branches of realism (neo, classical, neoclassical, liberal, left or constructivism), this article will discuss the core principles of realism in its most simple…

“He is well paid that is well satisfied” (IV.i.433) Portia, in The Merchant of Venice.

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Figure 1. Florence [Home of the Medici Family], by Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, c. 1835. Source: Wikimedia Commons

In this article, the origins of both prior and modern financial and monetary systems will be reviewed in an attempt to understand how we reached our current stage of currency and finance; with reference to key historical sources in order to substantiate all points made. The three core concepts that will be explored in this article are; the technological advancements in the world of finance in a chronological format, to emphasise the recurring theme of faster transactions and ease of access (1); alongside the ideology of mutual trust as we know it, in both its origins and evolution transitioning to its place in the modern economic system we have to date (2). Following this, the new technologies themselves will be dissected to answer the following questions; what are the new technologies specifically?; how are they used with regard to modern financial systems?; and finally, in what way can their presence or applications be deemed beneficial or disruptive? …


Thomas Marrs

Liverpool, UK. History & Hispanic Studies Undergraduate. Writer & Researcher in Politics, History and Economics. Aspiring Professor —

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