A guide for application designer using Intel SGX


Intel SGX Software Guard Extensions (SGX) are additions for x86-architecture based Intel CPUs to create so called Enclaves. Those Enclaves are areas inside the address space of processes, which are specifically protected by the CPU to control and avoid direct access, even from other privileged processes. The special protection of address space covers amongst other things transparent storage encryption with integrity protection and enables improvements in blockchain technologies, symbolically shown in Figure 1 for bitcoins.

Private information such as usernames, passwords, credit records and encryption records should only be allowed to access…

Rings illustration (source: unsplash.com=

In this article, I like to explain how the separations of duties in computer systems are accomplished. The following remarks should represent the necessary computer architecture, that consists of hardware and software components, how to separate two processes from each other. In example, a malicious process should not disturb or manipulate other processes.

A process is nothing else than a bunch of micro-instructions in certain virtual addresses / segments. An Intel Architecture (IA) is built to run multiple application software instances, named processes. The operating system (OS) allocates the computer resources to the running processes. …

The hardware root of trust

In this article I like to explain the basic functionalities about the concept of computer architectural mechanisms to ensure a trusted boot. Initially, I’ll explain the basic concept of a standard boot process, then the magic of root of trust will be added to accomplish a trusted boot. This article focused on standard Intel Architecture (IA), described in [1] and [2].


The motivation of a trusted boot is the danger of malicious malware, which is a harmful piece of software. It secretly installs itself on the computer and stays hidden by working silently in the…

Figure 1: sketch-up for a lean start-up strategy [public domain]

The main topic of lean start-up is the build-measure-learn loop. You might assume it is supposed to start with build, but actually you are supposed to start with learn, so you need high quality ideas that you are testing. But how to get started?

You can do it in 6 simple steps:

  1. Start with a strong idea. Rethink about it and develop a high quality and testable idea.
  2. Define hypotheses to structure your idea in a testable format.
  3. Figure out how you’ll prove and disprove your hypotheses in order to save time and effort. Design your first experimental prototype: MVP

Figure 1: symbolic sketch-up for a start-up [public domain]

Be aware: This article is personal. This is not a guide like thousand other guides about how to become a entrepreneur in seven steps. I assume you have already read all of them. As a student, I would like to share my thoughts, fears, expectations and impressions to become an entrepreneur within three months. 10 years after my first graduate degree as an engineer for information and communication technology, I decided to resume my education in applied computer sciences and took the chance to discover the key principles of IT venture design and entrepreneurship.


Honestly, I had no idea what…

Martin Hermannsen

HS-Flensburg, university of applied sciences

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