The Construction of Belief And Ways of Seeing in The 21st Century

Many of nature’s processes can be boiled down to chance and reinforcement; both processes that had been implemented into machines as early as the 50s. SNARC is an exploration of the human psyche. Through the use of artificial intelligence and constructed environments, the project questions the nature of our thinking and the construct that is our society. If intelligence can be engineered, what distinguishes us from AI?

SNARC is short for Stochastic Neural Analog Reinforcement Computer, a machine rudimentary mirroring learning processes of the brain. It was designed by Marvin Lee Minsky and is considered one of the pioneering attempts at developing artificial intelligence. The idea was to create a network of artificial receptors that would learn about their environment without the need for pre-programmed instructions. …

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Fuse-wire at a surface coal mine in Schuylkill county, PA

Why a Healthy Coal Industry Does Not Equal More Coal Jobs

Paul Schaefer, an 84-year-old former employee of the St. Nicholas Cogeneration Plant, drives down a north-east Pennsylvania road winding around a surface coal mine. He pulls up to a driveway, revealing a pit, easily 20 stories deep. The site seems desolate. „They used to have a bar up here, but they tore it down a while ago,“ Schaefer says.

During his presidential campaign, Donald Trump made it a central promise to bring back the country’s coal jobs. ”For those miners, get ready, because you are gonna be working your asses off. […] We are going to save the coal industry,“ said Trump during a rally in Charleston in May 2016. To do that, he planned to roll back environmental protection rules that were meant to slow down climate change, and protect local nature. By January 2018, one year into his presidency, 33 rules had been overturned. …

Critical Exchange in the Ad-Revenue-Only Age

With a decreasing circulation of offline newspapers and the advent of online-only publications, the basis of the public’s critical exchange is in danger.

As of a study conducted by “Pew Research Center” in 2016, 38 percent of Americans are obtaining their news online, through social media, websites or their corresponding apps. Only 20 percent of americans are getting their news from print publications. This represents a seven percent decrease in consumers of print newspapers, compared to 2013. (Mitchell 2016, p.4–6)

Traditionally, print publication’s profit is made up of two revenue streams: revenue through circulation (number of daily distributed copies) and revenue through advertisements. The willingness of advertisers to spend a certain amount of money on print advertisement is directly tied to the publication’s circulation. Because people are abandoning print mediums in favor of online news sources, the offline circulation decreases, cutting into both of the revenue streams. …



Photographer and Journalist | clients include Briese Shipping and @FCBayern | ongoing projects about infrastructure and environment

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