Mayank Shah
4 min readSep 8, 2020


This article is a brief write-up about the work I did as a part of Google Summer of Code (2020) with Linkerd and my experience with working with the Linkerd team. Read more to find out!

What is Linkerd?

For those unfamiliar with Linkerd - it is a service mesh for Kubernetes.

Linkerd is a service mesh for Kubernetes. It makes running services easier and safer by giving you runtime debugging, observability, reliability, and security — all without requiring any changes to your code. [Source]

Linkerd uses a lightweight sidecar proxy powered by Rust (called “linkerd2-proxy”). These proxies sit next to each of your services and manage all the incoming and outgoing traffic. Together with the services, these make up the “data plane”. The other component of the Linkerd service mesh is the “control plane” written in Go . The control plane is used to manage the data plane and interact with it.

Architecture of Linkerd2. [Source]

I am not going to provide an in-depth explanation of Linkerd and service meshes in this post. However, if you’re interested in learning more, feel free to checkout this blog post by William Morgan.

Conformance Validation

While Linkerd has a great way of running pre-installation and post-installation checks using the linkerd check command, these checks are unfortunately static in nature. There’s many different ways to configure a Kubernetes cluster, with different kinds of providers (such as AKS or GKE). When a particular configuration causes Linkerd to behave unexpectedly, debugging your cluster may become somewhat difficult. The goal of this project is to build a tool that runs E2E tests against some sample workloads on a cluster and exercise many different features of Linkerd to verify if the cluster conforms with Linkerd.

You can find the project repository here.

Currently, the linkerd2-conformance project exercises the following features of Linkerd2:

These tests can be configured by providing a YAML file with the required specifications. These configurations include things like Linkerd version, control plane add-ons, skipping tests, clean-up options, etc. Here’s a sample configuration file:

linkerdVersion: stable-2.8.0
externalIssuer: false
# namespace: l5d-conformance
ha: false
- "--controller-log-level"
- "debug"
- "--proxy-log-level"
- "warn,linkerd2_proxy=debug"
enabled: true
limit: 100m
request: 10m
limit: 100Mi
request: 50Mi
skip: false
reinstall: false
uninstall: true
upgradeFromVersion: stable-2.7.1
skip: false
clean: true
skip: false
clean: true
skip: false
clean: true
skip: false
clean: true
skip: false
- name: nginx
clean: true
- name: ambassador
clean: true
- name: traefik
clean: true
skip: false
clean: true

Once you have configured your tests, you have 2 ways to run them.

  1. Using Sonobuoy

Sonobuoy offers a reliable way to run diagnostic tests in a Kubernetes cluster. We leverage its plugin model to run conformance tests inside a Kubernetes pod.

To run the tests using Sonobuoy, you’d have to first mount the test configuration shown above as a ConfigMap object and simply run the Sonobuoy plugin provided with the project. Sonobuoy will take care of running these tests and will also provide neat reports of the tests.

2. Using go test

These E2E tests are written completely using Golang. We chose Ginkgo as our testing framework and Gomega as its matcher library. The reason for choosing Ginkgo was that it allowed us to neatly structure our tests , and also provided a way to have neat logging and reporting for the tests.

To learn more about the usage, feel free to checkout the documentation.

My experience with Linkerd

My journey with Linkerd started back in October 2019, prior to GSoC, when I was just getting started with Kubernetes and had nearly no experience with service meshes. By making small contributions such as minor bug fixes and addition of new features to the CLI, I have come a long way in learning about service meshes, to be able to work with the Linkerd community as a GSoC student — credits to the very friendly and welcoming community that made sure to answer even the silliest of my questions and help me along the way.

From drafting a project proposal, to getting PRs merged, I have always been able to learn something new from every interaction I have had with the Linkerd community. On the technical side of things I have learnt great coding ethics and practices, developed the ability to read code, understand new paradigms in software development, and most importantly learnt a great deal about service meshes and why must one use it. On the non-technical side, I have learnt how to express ideas and communicate effectively with a team.


GSoC and Linkerd have helped me grow as a software engineer, and the journey has been absolutely delightful for me. Special thanks to my mentors Tarun and Ivan who have been very supportive of my ideas and provided valuable feedback. I’m very excited to see how Linkerd users make effective use of my project, and I also hope to be able to continue making meaningful contributions to the project!



Mayank Shah

Software Engineer working on Kubernetes, distributed systems and databases.