An Introduction to Hebrew Type

This article presents in brief the typographic fundamentals of the Hebrew script. If you’re thinking about working with Hebrew type, or drawing Hebrew letters yourself, here are the main things you have to know:

Hebrew’s 22 letters + 5 final forms (in red) · Set in Narkis Block

Hebrew is a relatively lean alphabet, with 22 letters and 5 additional final forms, which are versions of letters that appear only at the end of words. The script includes some unique punctuation & diacritical marks, which will be discussed further down this article.

Letterforms flow right-to-left, note the curving top strokes and left-facing open counters · Set in Aharoni

The most obvious feature of the script is its direction — horizontal rows of text that flow from right to left. This also affects the letters’ geometry: for example, the “open letterforms”, as they are called, are open on their left side; the tops of the letters curve towards the left, as well.

Some typefaces have a wide range of in-stroke angles, all usually around the 60° mark · Set in Narkisim

For most of the writing models, the pen is usually held at an angle of about 60º to the baseline, which creates heavy horizontal strokes and thin vertical strokes. Some modern styles are drawn at a 45º angle, making an even stroke throughout.

Hebrew letters hanging from the mem height (in red) · Set in Hadassah Friedlaender

Hebrew letters hang from the top line, rather than rest on the baseline. This top line is called the ם ( (similar to the Latin x-height).

Hebrew’s only ascender in the Lamed (second from the right), and two descenders for example — Qof (third from the left) and Final Nun (left) · Set in Koren

Hebrew has one ascender — in the letter ל (lamed). It’s traditionally at least as tall as an entire mem height, but in modern typography it’s usually shortened to save space. In cursive Hebrew some letters are stylistically drawn taller, such as and , but this is more of an exception than a rule.

There are five Hebrew descenders — in the letter ק (qof), and in four of the five final forms — ך (kaf), ן (nun), ף (pe) and ץ (tsadi). Historically, the ם (final mem) also descended below the baseline, but in modern Hebrew it’s aligned to the baseline.

The three width classes: close-form group, open-form and narrow · Set in David Libre

Hebrew letters have three widths: “closed” letterforms (that have two or more vertical strokes enclosing their counters) are the widest; “open” letterforms (with a single vertical stroke on their right side) are a bit more compact; and the narrowest letters are the ones with minimal horizontal strokes, such as vav and yod.

The same word in cursive (left) and in formal script (right) · Set in Narkis Tammy and Narkis Tam

The Hebrew script has two forms: square (formal) and cursive. There is also a medial form that was used for rabbinical interpretive texts (earning the nickname , and which is illegible to most readers today. Hebrew has no “cases” (no minuscules/majuscules) nor italics. The formal and cursive forms are almost never used together. An in Hebrew will usually be rendered in bold. There have been few attempts to create a Hebrew equivalent to the italic style; the most successful one was the style of the David Hebrew typeface by Ismar David.

The concept of serifs/sans-serifs is foreign to Hebrew. More about this discussion can be read in this article I wrote about Hebrew serifs.

Hebrew with diacritical marks (niqqud) · Set in Frank Rühl (Hagilda)

Hebrew is an abjad — a consonant-only script. Vowels are normally inferred, and sometimes are marked in the form of diacritical marks, . These marks are usually attached to the bottoms of the letters, except for one that is inserted within the counters () and some that appear above the letters ( and the mark, and the ). The marks are usually styled in accordance to the main letterforms. Niqqud marks have standard Unicode numbers, and Hebrew text fonts normally include them. There is also a separate set of cantillation marks, which is used exclusively for biblical texts, and is rarely included outside of traditional “biblical” fonts.

Hebrew punctuation: Gershayim and maqaf · Set in Narkis

Hebrew has some specific punctuation marks: single and double quote marks— and appear “typewriter style” (without direction) and are aligned slightly above the mem height. The Hebrew hyphen, which is used to connect words, is a short horizontal stroke aligned to the top of the mem height, forming a “bridge” between the words. Hebrew only has a single dash mark (usually the en dash), set with spaces before and after to denote an independent clause, or without spaces to denote a range. Periods are sometimes diamond-shaped to fit the style of the letterforms, and question- and exclamation-marks are often aligned a little above the mem height.

For further reading, the best book on the subject is Ada Yardeni’s , which is a comprehensive illustrated study of the history and the construction of Hebrew letterforms, and is considered to be the “bible” of Hebrew scholarly research. Additionally, L. F. Tobi’s has some fine examples of different scripts, and Ismar David’s is a wonderful primer for Hebrew writing.

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