Unimolecular Submersible Nanomachines

Until last years, technological developments is inspired from nature and used biomimicry at the microscopic scale. Scientists like Richard Feynman noticed the potential of microsystems approximately 60 years ago. With the development of semiconductor device fabrication, microelectronic and micromahcanic systems were practiced. In this decade, through enhancing nanotechnology methods, it has become possible to make nanomachines.

Lecture of “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” 
 Richard Feynman. (Dec 29, 1959) CALTECH

In University of Rice, scientists produced the first nano-submarine that can circulate in the solution. The nano-submarine is a molecular structure which consists of 22 atoms [1]. The structure includes two significant parts: motor for motion and fluorophores which is a fluorescent chemical for observation. As Lopez (2015) stated, in this study, it is observed motion of single-molecule nanomachines with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in solution. In free solution, the nanomachines invariably moves under the influence of Browian motion which is a kind of stochastic diffusion model. On the other hand, the nanomachine when activated by UV light, it is clearly visible that nanomachines moves a directed motion.

When the UV light activates nano-submarine, molecular motor part acts like a pusher tail. Thus, it is provided to move forward nano-submarine 18 nanometer. According to Tour (2015), until now, this molecular nanosystem is the fastest moving molecules in solution. The nanosubmarine which is called unimolecular submersible nanomachine (USN) can be faster 26% from diffusion owing to UV light influence.

Unimolecular submersible nanomachine (USN)

Above all, using of UV light and laser provides the ability of movement to unimolecular submersible nanomachine (USN). Owing to given beam from outside, this molecular system bonds is changed in four steps. Therefore, this changes assure flagellate movement over nanomachine.

Motion mechanism of USNs.

Furthermore, photonic technologies are used also monitoring the motion of nanosubmarines. It is observed motion of single-molecule nanomachines with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in solution and the study results are obtained.

Consequently, through the light driven nanosubmarines, it is possible that it can be realize drug transportation in blood circulation. Morever, molecular nanomachines will be precursor for nano-transmission and developed the molecular systems that can be remote control by controlling the light sources. These technological improvement provides medical opportunity in treatments that require cellular theraphy by drug transmission without damaging healhty cells.