Long Form Research Essay#10 Final:

The Idea of inequality within women as to men has been a controversial topic for years. As time goes on I don’t believe anything has changed. Of course some basic milestones such as voting, and labor has improved as compared to the 1900’s, but other than that, the idea of what a woman’s role in society is continues to be the same. For the past months I have been researching how a woman’s role is viewed within Third World countries and how those opinions differ from those living in the United States. I have come across many interesting articles in which believe Women are treated very poorly because of their gender, and I have also found some opposing articles arguing that there is much more to that. However, I believe that women are treated very poorly in both rural and developing countries.

To prove the amount of research I have done, here is my annotated bibliography, each argue the poor conditions women face and the amount of work that they invest both emotionally and physically. Many of these women struggle and work in farms and factories for hours, yet still have to go home and work full time. Being the housewife that most men want is difficult, but many people don’t understand that. For generations people believe that cooking, cleaning and nurturing comes along with being a women and because of that, nothing has changed. For example, Woman, Culture and Society written by Michelle Zimbalist proves many of these arguments stating that for years woman are seen as “The Other” or as the second sex. Therefore it is believed that it is a women’s duty to take care of their children and help provide for their family, even if they are not given enough credit.

Its 2016 and as sad as it is, racism and gender inequality still exists, therefore it’s a challenge having to change such strong beliefs. This inequality is spread around the world from rural to developing countries such as Pakistan,India, Nigeria etc. Therefore, the only way things will change is if people accept that women are treated below men, women are paid less than men, and women have more to prove than men do. Whether it comes down to religion or culture men have been taught that women should be treated with respect yet there’s this barrier between men and women that doesn’t allow one another to be treated equally and if these beliefs remain the same nothing will ever change.

People all over the world have different perspectives to what the role of a woman really is, but overall majority of women believe that there is a barrier of inequality within the role of a woman than that of a man specifically within third world countries. Most of the the books I’ve read such as Patriarchy and accumulation on a world scale: Women in the international division of labour,Woman, culture, and society and so on argue the same things. Those arguments being that a women has to deal with being a mother and a wife, yet has to work hours in the fields or factories to help provide for their family having to deal with injustice within the labor market. This last book however, Women, Men and the International Division of Labor written by June C gave some opposing arguments.

June C argued that the inequalities within the labor markets in Third World Countries and in the United States has little to do with gender. She argues that these inequalities are based on national, regional, and urban rural differences. June points out several arguments one being that as time goes on, nationality becomes basically European due to the integration between the First and Third world labor force. Now that I think about it, that is completely true, as time goes on people start adapting to majority of the things being done and even though one of those things may not revolve around a certain culture, the environment they’re in becomes a culture within itself.

Adding to this, most of the other books I read mentioned that women in Third World countries work hours for a very little amount of pay compared to men however June C argues against that. She points out that the wage differences between nations have more to deal with than just gender differences but they also rely on ethnicity and age as well. As we all know racism is a huge factor of inequality and definitely has a lot to do with job equality and pay. Even though these aren’t the ideal situations that people want to deal with, it’s the truth and shows that there is much more that has to be changed besides the role of a women within a Third World country and society itself.

As I mentioned, I have analyzed a couple of other articles and books and they all have similar yet distinctive arguments. For example, feminist Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo argues that “for the most part, scholars have taken for granted a view of a women as passive sexual objects, as devoted mothers, and as dutiful wives.” The argument clearly states the overall aspects of how a women is viewed within society and culture. Men argue that they feel that their duty is to work and provide for their family which is why many believe in this idea of not allowing a women to be self dominant, however that idea is changing how children view women and how women view themselves.

Many women have started to accept this idea of being a dutiful wife and children are being taught that this is the way it should be, and that’s what I and many other women are trying to change. This idea of one gender being more dominant than the other causes a lot of confusion for children and causes confusion for women’s self worth. Men, women, and society have the power within this topic, each can either change the ideals and belief of a woman’s role within culture and society or each can keep spreading this same belief.

With that said, the role of women within Third World countries is important for not only women and myself to know about, but for men and children to know about as well. Women have been downgraded for years, and male dominance has taken over for centuries. Some places within developing countries such as Nigeria continue to sell women for marriage, reproduction, and so on, which is inhuman but is seen as a norm within themselves. This idea downgrades a woman’s ability to be dependent of herself by having to please her family and religion proving that she is pure by obeying these rules. Therefore acknowledging the topic and teaching future generations both girls and boys about this topic can definitely impact that.

Women seen as sexual objects has and will continue to be looked at the same, however it’s the way women perceive that in which can make a difference. Most women have grown to be independent however certain cultures and religions as I mentioned above don’t make that easy. As a Latina specifically Mexican American I have certain expectations to meet but I have been fortunate enough to live in California having different ideals to my worthiness as a women. Family living in Mexico however, don’t have the same luck I do which thrived my curiosity. Women living in Mexico, India, Asia, China and all these other Third World countries don’t have the ability to be free with themselves. Many of these women are held to consistent standards of only being capable of taking care of the children, cleaning, and cooking. However the conditions they face are far worst than those living in the United States which definitely impacts their role as a women.

To prove the statement above, Studies have shown that Americans rated men as less interdependent than women; Koreans, however, showed the opposite pattern, rating men as more interdependent than women, in where interdependent means relying on one another, proving a difference on a women’s role in America versus a women’s role in a Third World country. The statement proves that men in America don’t believe on having to rely on their wife, where as men in countries such as Korea believe they do have to rely on their wife and it’s the wife in whom doesn’t have to rely on the husband. This means that women take on more responsibility. With that said, a role of a woman isn’t simple, being a mother and a wife is a full time job and people don’t realize that. Whether a women lives in California or halfway around the world, these constant barriers between women and men are set and if no one acknowledges that, then things will never change.

Work Cited

Benería, L., & Sen, G.. (1981). Accumulation, Reproduction, and “Women’s Role in Economic Development”: Boserup Revisited. Signs, 7(2), 279–298.Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3173878

Dankelman, I., & Davidson, J. (1988). Women and environment in the Third World: Alliance for the future. London: Earthscan Pub. in association with IUCN.

Elson, D., & Pearson, R. (1981). ‘Nimble Fingers Make Cheap Workers’: An Analysis of Women’s Employment in Third World Export Manufacturing. Feminist Review, (7), 87. doi:10.2307/1394761

Mies, M. (1986). Patriarchy and accumulation on a world scale: Women in the international division of labour. London: Zed Books.

Nash, J. C., & Fernández-Kelly, M. P. (1983). Women, men, and the international division of labor. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Rosaldo, M. Z., Lamphere, L., & Bamberger, J. (1974). Woman, culture, and society: Edited by michelle zimbalist rosaldo and louise samphere. Contributors — joan bamberger. Stanford,Ca: Stanford University Press.

Wiesner, M. E. (1993). Women and gender in early modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Annotated Bibliography: https://medium.com/@mely.desantiago/updated-annotated-bibliography-2a3f0b9ef1f3#.dt4jiehdd

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