Prof. Dr. Metin O. Kaya
76 standart çözüm 5 ana gruba (sınıfa) ayrılmaktadır:
I. Sistemde küçük bir değişiklik veya değişiklik yapmaksızın iyileştirme (13)
II. Sistemi değiştirerek iyileştirme (23)
III. Ana sistemden bir üst sisteme ya da mikro seviyeye geçiş (6 )
IV. Teknik sistemdeki herhangi bir şeyi ortaya çıkar veya ölçümünü yap (17)
V. Teknik sisteme madde veya alanları nasıl konulacağını tanımla (17)
Sınıf I: Sistemde küçük bir değişiklik yapmak veya değişiklik yapmaksızın iyileştirme.
İstenilen sonucu elde etmek üzere sistemi değiştirmek veya istenilmeyen sonucu yok etmek. Sistemde hiç değişiklik yoktur veya küçük değişiklikler vardır. Bu grup, bir modeli tamamlamak için gerekli çözümleri içermektedir.
1.1 Yetersiz bir sistemin performansını geliştirme
1.2. Zararlı etkileri yok etme veya etkisiz hale getirme.
Sınıf II Sistemi değiştirerek sistemi iyileştirme.
Madde-Alan sistemi geliştirme.
2.1. Karmasık madde-alan modellerine geçiş.
2.2. Madde-alan modellerini zorlama.
2.3. Performansı geliştirmek üzere, bir veya her iki elementin sıklığının, doğal sıklığa uyum veya uyumsuzluğunu kontrol etme.
2.4. Ferromanyetik malzeme ve manyetik alanları birleştirmek, sistemin performansını arttırmak için etkili bir yoldur.
Sınıf III Sistem Geçisleri
3.1. İkili ve çoklu sistemlere geçiş
3.2. Mikro seviyeye geçiş
Sınıf IV Tespit Etme veya Ölçme
Tespit etme veya ölçme kontrol içindir. Birçok durumda, en yenilikçi çözüm, fiziksel, kimyasal ve geometrik etkilerden yararlanarak tespit etme ve ölçme olmadan otomatik kontroldür.
4.1. Dolaylı yöntemler
4.2. Bir ölçüm sistemini oluşturma veya sentez yapma. Bazı unsurlar ve alanlar, mevcut sisteme eklenmelidir.
4.3. Ölçüm sistemlerini değerlendirmek
4.4. Ölçmeyi kolaylaştırmak için, sistemdeki ferromanyetik madde ve manyetik alanın kullanılmasını sağlamak veya eklemek.
4.5. Ölçüm sistemlerinin gelişiminin yönü
Sınıf V Standart çözümleri basitleştirme ve iyileştirme için yöntemler
5.1. Maddeleri tanıtmak
5.2. Alanları kullanmak.
5.3. Safha geçişleri.
5.4. Doğal olguları kullanmak (Fiziksel etkileri kullanma)
5.5. Maddelerin daha yüksek ve düşük hallerini üretmek
Standartların ortaya çıkarılması, aşağıdaki grafikten de görüldüğü gibi 10 sene içinde gerçekleşmiştir.
Class 1: Synthesis of Sufields
Group 1.1: Improvement and Introduction of Useful Actions
To enhance the effectiveness and controllability of an incomplete sufield, it must be completed by introducing the missing elements .
If there is a sufield that is difficult to change as required, and there are no limitations on introduction of additives into the given substances, the problem can be solved by a permanent or temporary transition to an internal compound sufield. Here, S1 — object; S2 −tool; S3 −additive; parenthesis indicate an internal compound connection (an external compound connection does not have brackets).
Example: To enhance heat- and mass-transfer with high-viscosity liquids, they are mixed with gas.
If there is a sufield that is difficult to change as required, and if there are limitations on adding additives into the given substances, the problem can be solved by a permanent or temporary transition to an external compound sufield.
Example: To improve the weld quality, a welding rod is coated with an alloying material. As the coating burns, the weld is alloyed, and its strength increases.
If there is a sufield that is difficult to change as required, and there are limitations on the introduction or attachment of additional substances, the problem can be solved by using the present surrounding medium (environment) as the introduced substance.
If the surrounding medium does not contain a substance required to compose a sufield as in Standard 1.1.4, then this substance can be obtained by replacing this medium with another one, or by its chemical breakdown, or by introduction of additives.
Example: Poultry vaccination is a key part of the disease control program. Clearly, inoculating individual chicks would be a nightmare. The problem is solved by dispensing poultry vaccine into the drinking water.
If a minimal (optimal) action is required that is difficult or impossible to carry out within the constraints of the problem, then the most intense action should be used, and its excesses should be removed (the excess of a field is removed by a substance, and the excess of a substance — by a field).
Example: To apply a thin coat of paint on a part, it is dipped into a paint tank thus providing an excessive thickness of the coating. Then the part is spun, and the excess of paint is removed by centrifugal forces.
If there is a need to apply the maximal action to a substance, but it is unacceptable for some reason, the maximal action should be applied to another substance connected to the first substance.
Example: Fabrication of pre-stressed reinforced concrete blocks requires stretching of steel reinforcing rods. This is done by heating the rods. After thermal expansion of the rods, they are fixed inside the concrete mass. However, if a wire is used instead of the more expensive rods, it has to be heated up to 700◦C, while only 400◦C is tolerated before the wire starts losing its mechanical properties. It is suggested to heat an auxiliary heat-resistant rod which, after expansion, is attached to the wire. During the cooling process, the auxiliary rod shrinks and stretches the wire that remains cool.
If a selectively extreme action is required (e.g., an extreme action in certain areas while the minimal action is maintained in other areas), the field should have either maximal or minimal intensity. In the former case, the areas that have to be subjected to the minimal field are screened by a protective substance. In the latter case, the special substances generating a local field are introduced in the areas requiring maximal field; such substances could be, for example, termite mixtures for thermal action, explosive substances for mechanical action, etc.
Group 1.2: Breaking Harmful Actions
If both useful and harmful actions develop between two substances in a sufield, and it is not necessary to maintain a direct contact between the substances, the problem can be solved by introducing between the two substances a third substance from outside (this substance should be inexpensive or free).
If both useful and harmful actions develop between two substances in a sufield, and it is not necessary to maintain the direct contact between the substances, but use of outside substances is prohibited or undesirable, the problem can be solved by introducing a third substance between the two, which is a modification of the two original substances.
If there is a need to eliminate a harmful action of a field upon a substance, it can be achieved by introducing a second substance that draws off upon itself the harmful action of the field.
If both useful and harmful actions develop between two substances in a sufield, and a direct contact between the substances should be maintained, the problem can be solved by transition to a double sufield, in which the existing field F1 provides the useful action, while the harmful action is neutralized (or the harmful action is transformed into the second useful action) by a new field F2.
If a sufield with a magnetic field has to be broken, the problem can be solved by using physical effects “turning off” ferromagnetic properties of substances by impact demagnetization or by heating above the Curie point.
Example: Resistance welding of ferromagnetic powders to surfaces is often accompanied by repulsion of the powder by the magnetic field of the welding current. It was suggested to heat the powder up to its Curie temperature before bringing it into the welding zone.
Group 2.1: Transition to Complex Sufields
If effectiveness of a sufield has to be enhanced, it can be achieved by transforming one substance of the sufield into an independently controlled sufield thus generating a chain sufield .
If controllability of a sufield has to be enhanced, but replacement of elements of this sufield is not allowed, the problem can be solved by synthesis of a double sufield by introducing a second well-controllable sufield.
Group 2.2: Intensification of Sufields
The effectiveness of a sufield can be enhanced by replacement of an uncontrollable or poorly controllable field with a well-controllable field.
Examples: Replacement of gravitational field with mechanical, of mechanical with electric, etc.
The effectiveness of a sufield can be enhanced by increasing the degree of fragmentation of a substance acting as a tool.
A special case of fragmentation of a substance is transition from solid substances to capillaries or porous substances.
This transition progresses along the line of evolution: solid substance→solid substance with one cavity→solid substance with multiple cavities (perforated substance)→ porous or capillary filled substance → porous or capillary filled substance with orderly structured (and/or calibrated) capillaries or pores.
Example: In soldering electronic parts on a circuit board, a soldering defect such as a solder bridge (excess solder), which causes terminals to be short-circuited, sometimes occurs and needs to be removed. US Patent 6,681,980 describes a soldering iron with a tip that has capillary-like grooves that suck up the excess molten solder.
The effectiveness of a sufield can be enhanced by increasing its flexibility, which means ttransition to a system structure that is more flexible and capable of fast changes.
The effectiveness of a sufield can be enhanced by transition from uniform or disordered fields to non-uniform fields or fields with a particular spatial–temporal structure (stable or variable).
Example: US Patent 5,006,266 describes using ultrasonic standing waves to separate particulate materials in liquids by attracting the individual particles to the nodes or the antinodes.
The effectiveness of a sufield can be enhanced by transition from homogeneous substances to substances with a particular spatial-structured structure (the latter may be stable or variable).
Example: To produce porous flame-resistant blocks, the directional pores are generated by burning silk threads placed into the green mass.
Group 2.3: Harmonization of Rhythms
The effectiveness of a complete sufield can be enhanced by tuning or detuning the frequency of a field action with the natural frequencies of the object or the tool.
Example: To extract stones from the urethra, sometimes a string with a loop is introduced into the urethra. The stone is pulled out with the loop. It is suggested to apply a pulsating force with the frequency being a multiple of the frequency of perilstatic movements of the urethra. This enables a reduction in the trauma of the procedure, by reducing pain, and assists removal of stones of various shapes and sizes.
The effectiveness of a complex sufield can be enhanced by tuning or detuning the frequencies of fields in relation to one another.
Example: There is a method of enriching fine-milled magnetic ores in which the ore is acted upon by a combination of a traveling magnetic field and vibration. The effectiveness of the separation process is enhanced by varying the intensity of the magnetic field synchronously with the vibration.
If two actions, such as change and measurement, are incompatible, then one action is performed during pauses of the other action (generally, pauses in one action should be filled by another useful action).
Example: To provide for automatic control of the thermal cycle of resistance spot welding, it is necessary to measure the thermoelectric potential. The control accuracy for high pulsating frequency of welding is improved by measuring the thermoelectric voltage potential during pauses between pulses of the welding current.
Group 2.4: Fefields and Efields
The highest degree of intensification in modern technological systems can be applied to fefields (sufields with dispersed ferromagnetic substances and magnetic field.
The effectiveness of a sufield system can be enhanced by using a ferromagnetic substance and magnetic field.
This Standard is for application of a ferromagnetic substance that is not finely fragmented. These systems can be called proto-fefields — structures in transition towards fefields. The Standard is applicable to simple as well as to complex sufields.
Example: A hammer equipped with a magnetic insert can pick up nails and tacks and hold them prior to their use.
The controllability of a sufield or a proto-fefield can be enhanced by replacing one of the substances with ferromagnetic particles or by adding ferromagnetic particles, such as chips, granules, grains, etc. and by using magnetic or electromagnetic fields.
After becoming a fefield, the sufield system repeats the evolution cycle of sufields, but at a new, higher level, since fefields are characterized by high controllability and effectiveness.
Example: Magnetic tapes for therapeutic application are typically plastic foils with magnetic particles embedded in the plastic. These magnetic particles are aligned by applying an external magnetic field to the foil; this produces a magnetically polarized area.
The effectiveness of a fefield can be enhanced by transition to a magnetorheological fluid.
The effectiveness of a sufield can be enhanced by using a capillary or porous structure.
Example: Impregnating powder metal parts, which have porous surfaces, with magnetorheological fluids enhances the binding of the parts together in various mechanisms (US Patent 6,428,860).
If there is a need to enhance controllability by transition to fefield, but replacement of the substance by ferromagnetic particles is not acceptable, then the transition is performed by constructing an internal or external complex fefield by adding ferromagnetic particles to one of the substances.
Example: In magnetic–abrasive machining, common abrasive particles sintered with iron grits are placed between an electromagnet and the workpiece. When there is a relative motion between the particles and the workpiece, the abrasion takes place (Jain, 2002).
If controllability should be enhanced by transition from a sufield to a fefield, but replacement of the substance by ferromagnetic particles or additions to the substances is not acceptable, then ferromagnetic particles should be added to the surrounding medium (environment).
Example: A plastic sheet impregnated with magnetized particles (“magnetic mat”) is used in a variety of environments (workshops, garages, etc.) to keep tools, nuts, bolts, and other parts within easy reach.
The controllability of a fefield system can be enhanced by using physical effects.
Example: To enhance the sensitivity of measuring magnetic amplifiers, the absolute temperature of their core is maintained at 0.92–0.99 of the Curie temperature of the core material.
The effectiveness of a fefield system can be enhanced by its dynamization, or transition to a flexible, variable structure of the system.
Example: The thickness of the wall of a hollow object is measured using a magnetic transducer outside and a ferromagnet inside of the object. To increase measurement accuracy, the ferromagnet is given the shape of an inflatable elastic balloon coated with ferromagnetic particles, so it can exactly conform to the object being measured.
The effectiveness of a fefield system can be enhanced by transition from fields having a homogenous or non-orderly structure to fields having heterogeneous or defined 3-D structure (constant or variable). In particular, if a substance within a fefield (or a substance which may become a part of a fefield) has to be given a certain threedimensional structure, then the process should be performed in the field whose structure corresponds to the required structure of the substance.
Example: To fabricate bristled plastic mats, ferromagnetic powder is added to the molten plastic according to the required bristle pattern. A magnetic field pulls out the powder thus forming the bristles. As an additional benefit, this solution allows for fast development and alteration of the bristle patterns.
Before reaching the Curie temperature, the magnetic susceptibility of ferrites reaches its maximum value (Hopkinson effect).
The effectiveness of a “proto-fefield” or fefield system can be enhanced by harmonization of rhythms of constitutive components of the system.
Examples: A“toss-up” vibratory regime is used to convey bulk and chunk ferromagnetic materials. The conveyance rate is increased by applying a pulsating magnetic field that travels in the direction of conveyance. The duration of the magnetic pulses is adjusted to be equal to the duration of the “flying phase” of the material being vibrated.
In case of difficulties with introduction of ferromagnetics or with providing magnetization, interaction of an external electromagnetic field with directly conducted or induced currents, or interaction between these currents should be used.
Example: Gripping metallic non-magnetic parts is done by passing a direct electric current through the part body in the direction perpendicular to the field strain lines of a magnet which is a part of the gripping device.
Fefields are systems into which ferromagnetic particles are introduced, while efields are systems in which electric currents act (or interact) instead of ferromagnetic particles.
Evolution of efields, similarly to that of fefields follows the common line: simple efiedls→complex efields→efields on an external medium→dynamization→structuring→harmonization of rhythms.
If a magnetic field cannot be used, one can use an electrorheological fluid.
Class 3: Transition to a Higher-level System and to Micro-level
Group 3.1: Transition to bi- and poly-systems
The effectiveness of a system at any stage of its evolution can be enhanced by combining the system with another system(s) into bi- or poly-system.
Examples: reading glasses, two-barrel hunting rifle, semiconductor diode, candy with liquor, multi-ink pen, roll of postal stamps, multi-layer cake, etc.
The enhancement of effectiveness of synthesized bi-systems and poly-systems is achieved, first of all, by evolution of connections between components of these systems.
Example: Folding reading glasses.
The effectiveness of bi- and poly-systems is enhanced when diversity of their components is increasing along the line: identical components → components with shifted characteristics→different components→inverse combinations ‘component and anticomponent.
The effectiveness of bi-systems and poly-systems is enhanced in the process of their convolution. The main reason for this is the reduction of auxiliary parts, e.g., a doublebarreled gun has only one butt. Completely convoluted bi- and poly-systems again become mono-systems and the evolutionary cycle may repeat itself on the new level.
The effectiveness of bi- and poly-systems can be enhanced by distributing incompatible (contradictory) properties between the system and its components: use a two-level system in which the whole system has a property P while its components have an opposite property P.
Group 3.2: Transition to Micro-level
The effectiveness of a system at any stage of its evolution can be enhanced by the transition from macro-level to micro-level, when the system or its part is replaced by a substance capable to perform the desired action when controlled by a field.
Class 4: Standards for Detecting and Measurement
Group 4.1: Detours
If there is a problem requiring measurement or detection in a system, then the system should be changed so that the need to measure or detect is eliminated.
If Standard 2.1.1 cannot be used, then it is worthwhile to replace direct interaction with the object by interaction with its copy or photographic image.
Example: Multi-spectral satellite imagery is an effective tool for crop assessment. It is based on the ability of plants to reflect light in the near-infrared part of the spectrum.
Plants’ infrared reflectance increases with the growth of the vegetative biomass. Satellites measure this reflectance and convert it to the digital data that are correlated to the amount of vegetative biomass and potential crop yields.
If Standards 4.1.1 and 4.1.2 cannot be used, then it is advisable to transform the problem into one requiring sequential detection of changes.
Any measurement has a certain degree of accuracy. Thus, in measurement problems even if a continuous measurement is required, it is always possible to separate an elementary measurement act into two consequent detections.
Examples: In the “chamber method” for mining copper ore, huge underground halls or “chambers” are generated. Due to blasts and to other reasons, the ceiling of the chamber may peel off in some areas and fall. It is necessary to monitor the condition of the ceiling and to measure the developing “pits”. However, it is very difficult since the ceiling is at the height of a five-storey building. It is suggested to drill horizontal holes above the ceiling in the preparation process for the construction of the chambers, and to insert into the holes luminescent substances of various colors. If in some location the ceiling develops a cupola-like pit, it can be easily detected by the exposing luminofore. The depth of the pit can be assessed by the luminofore’s color.
Group 4.2: Synthesis of Measurement Sufields
If it is difficult to measure or detect elements of an incomplete sufield, and Standard 4.2.1 cannot be used, then this sufield has to be completed and have a field as its output.
If a system or its part is not amenable to a detection or measurement procedure, then the problem can be addressed by transition to an internal or external complex sufield by introducing additives which are easier to detect.
Example: The actual area of contact between two parts is measured by painting one of the contacting surfaces with a luminescent die.
If a detection or a measurement procedure is difficult to perform at a certain moment of time and there is no possibility to introduce an additive generating an easily detectable and/or measurable field, then the additive has to be introduced into the external medium.
By monitoring the latter, it might be possible to record changes in the state of the object of interest.
Example: To monitor wear in an internal combustion engine, it is required to measure the amount of “worn-out” metal. Its particles are suspended in the lubricating oil. It is suggested to add a luminophore to the oil: the metal particles would suppress the glow.
If an additive cannot be added to the external medium, as by Standard 4.2.3, then these additives might be generated in the sufield’s substance, e.g. by its dissociation into constitutive elements or by changing its aggregate state. As such an additive, gas or steam bubbles obtained by electrolysis, cavitation, etc., are frequently used.
Example: Cavitation is used to measure a liquid’s flow velocity in a pipe (if introduction of additives into the fluid is prohibited). Small (and thus stable) bubbles are detected either with the help of the inductance or capacitance sensors.
Group 4.3: Intensification of Measurement Sufields
The effectiveness of detection and measurement within a sufield system can be enhanced by using physical effects.
In some cases it is desirable that substances constituting a sufield make a thermocouple which provides “free” information about the state of the system’s parameters. An “information field” can also be generated by induction.
If certain changes in a system cannot be detected or measured directly, and a field cannot be applied to the system, then the problem may be solved by excitation of resonance vibration in the system or its part; the changes in the system can be monitored by recording the changes in the vibration frequency.
Example: The mass of oil in a large stationary oil reservoir can be measured by imparting forced vibrations to the reservoir.
If Standard 4.3.2 cannot be applied, then condition of the system may be assessed by monitoring changes in the natural frequency of an object (external medium), connected to the system to be controlled.
Example: The mass of a clinker in a cement baking kiln is determined by monitoring variation of amplitude of self-excited vibrations of the gas over the pseudo-boiling layer.
Group 4.4: Transition to Measurement Fefields
Measurement sufields with non-magnetic fields have a tendency of transition into protofefields.
Example: US Patent 6,742,229 describes a buckle device used in automotive seat belt systems, in which it can be detected whether or not the “tongue” inserted into a holder is locked. This is accomplished with the help of a magnetic plate, which moves together with the “tongue” and a magnetic sensor that detects the plate’s position.
To enhance the effectiveness of detection or measurement by proto-fefields and sufields systems, it is desirable to introduce fefields by replacing one of the substances with ferromagnetic particles (or by adding ferromagnetic particles) and then performing detection or measurement of the magnetic field.
Example: The degree of hardening (solidification) or softening of polymeric compositions can be non-destructively evaluated by adding magnetic powder into the composition.
The measured parameter is the change of the composition’s magnetic permeability in the process of solidification/softening.
If Standard 4.4.2 cannot be used, then transition to a fefield may be executed by constructing a complex fefield by introducing additives to the substances.
Example: Hydrocrushing of rock in mining is performed by applying a pressurized liquid to the rock. The fluid’s parameters are monitored by adding ferromagnetic powder to it.
If Standard 4.4.3 cannot be used, then ferromagnetic particles have to be introduced into the external medium.
Example: To study waves generated by a model ship, magnetic particles are added to the water.
To enhance the effectiveness of a fefield measurement system, one can use physical effects, such as transition through the Curie point, Hopkinson effect, Barkhausen effect, etc.
Example: US Patent 4,534,405 discloses a method for inspecting the surface of steel stock. A thin surface layer of the steel stock is intensively cooled on the surface to be inspected, to a temperature below the Curie point. The core of the steel remains hot. Immediately thereafter, a magnetic field is induced in the cooled surface layer and disturbances in the induced field caused by defects are detected.
Group 4.5: Directions of Evolution of Measurement Sufields
The evolution of measurement sufields progresses along conventional system transitions but it is also characterized by some specific features.
The effectiveness of a measurement system at every phase of its evolution can be enhanced by transition to a bi- or poly-system.
Example: To measure the body temperature of small insects, a multitude of them are placed in a glass. Then, a conventional thermometer can be used.
Measurement systems evolve in the direction: measuring of a function → measuring the first derivative of the function → measuring the second derivative of the function.
Example: Vibration measurement techniques have evolved from measuring the amplitude of vibratory displacement (seismometer) to measuring vibratory velocity (velocimeter) to measuring vibratory acceleration (accelerometer). At present, the overwhelming majority of vibration measurements are performed using accelerometers.
This is an abrupt increase of the value of the magnetic field during magnetization of a ferromagnetic material.
Class 5: Standards on Application of the Standards
Group 5.1:Introduction of Substances
If there is a need to introduce a substance into the system, but it is unacceptable due to the problem specifications or to performance conditions of the system, then some indirect ways should be used.
(1) Use “voids” instead of substances.
(2) Introduce a field instead of a substance.
(3) Use an external instead of an internal additive.
Example: To measure the wall thickness of a hollow ceramic vessel it is filled with a highly electroconductive liquid, one lead of the ohmmeter is dipped into the liquid, and another lead touches the external surface at the point where thickness is to be measured.
(4) Introduce a micro-dose of an extremely active additive.
Example: A mineral oil-based lubricant is used for drawing pipes. To reduce hydrodynamic pressure of the lubricant in the deformation zone, 0.2–0.8% by weight of polymethilacrylate is added to the lubricant.
(5) Introduce a microdose of a conventional additive but strategically concentrate it in critical segments of the object.
Example: To make an electroconductive polymer, ferromagnetic particles, shaped as discrete fibers, are introduced into the polymer and oriented in the desired direction of high conductivity.
(6) Introduce an additive for a short duration.
Example: Orientation of hollowferromagnetic components is enhanced by inserting ferromagnetic pieces into the components for the duration of the orientation procedure.
(7) Use, instead of the object, its substitute (mock-up) into which insertion of an additive is permissible.
Example: To enhance accuracy of three-dimensional analysis of the crosssectional shapes, the latter are simulated by the horizontal surface of a liquid inside a transparent mock up which can be given various positions and inclinations.
(8) To introduce an additive as a component of a chemical composition from which the additive is subsequently extracted.
Example: Plastification of frictional wooden surfaces during their sliding is achieved by impregnating the wooden parts with a chemical composition that dissociates at the friction temperature and emits ammonia.
(9) To generate an additive by dissociating the surrounding medium or the object itself, e.g., by electrolysis or by changing the aggregate state of a part of the object or of the surrounding medium.
Example: To intensify removal of a residue generated by the electrodischarge machining process, the gas is generated by electrolysis of the electrolyte next to the machining zone.
If a system is responds poorly to the desirable changes, but the tool cannot be replaced or additives introduced, then the tool is replaced by the article. The latter is divided into parts interacting between themselves.
Example: Electrostatic coagulation of dust in mines is enhanced by splitting the dust stream into two parts each of which is oppositely charged, and directing them toward each other.
A substance introduced into the system, after it has performed its function, should disappear or become indistinguishable from the substance that had already been present in the system or in its environment.
If there is a need to introduce a large quantity of a substance, but it is prohibited by the specifications of the problem or is unacceptable by performance conditions, then a void (inflated structures or foam) is used as the substance.
Example: Using inflatable structures as temporary buildings.
Group 5.2: Introduction of Fields
If there is a need to introduce a field into a sufield system, then the first of the already present fields have to be used. Substances comprising the system are sources of these fields.
If there is a need to introduce a field into a sufield system, and Standard 5.2.1 is inapplicable, then fields available in the environment should be used.
Example: In 1999, Citizen Watch Company introduced watches powered by the temperature difference between the back of the watch’s case, warmed by body heat, and the surrounding air.
If a field needs to be introduced into the system, but Standard 5.2.1 cannot be used, then the field should be used whose carriers or sources can be substances already present in the system or in the environment.
Example: The system “machined part-cutting tool” is used as a thermocouple for measuring cutting zone temperature (“natural thermocouple”).
Group 5.3: Phase Transitions
The effectiveness of the use of a substance can be enhanced, without introduction of other substances, by phase transition , i.e. by changing the phase state of the present substance.
Example: Power for pneumatic systems in mines is supplied by liquefied, rather than compressed, gas.
“Dual” properties can be realized by use of phase transition 2, i.e., by employing substances capable of transition from one phase to another depending on the work conditions.
Example: Use of shape memory alloys .
A system’s effectiveness can be enhanced by use of phase transition 3, i.e. phenomena accompanying a phase transition.
Example: A handling system for frozen goods has supporting elements made of ice blocks (friction is reduced due to the ice melting).
“Dual” properties of a system can be realized by phase transition 4 (i.e., replacing a single-phase state by a two-phase state).
Example: Cleaning filters for delicate products, such as caviar, involves breaking lumps of the product and thenwashing out the contaminants withwater. To reduce the potential damage to the product, the water is saturated with gas.
The effectiveness of technological systems resulting from phase transition 4 can be enhanced by introduction of physical or chemical interaction between parts or phases of the systems.
Example: To enhance gas compression in the cooler and expansion in the heater of a two-phase working medium for compressors and thermal machinery consisting of gas and fine solid particles, sorbents with general or selective sorption ability are used as materials for the solid particles.
Group 5.4: Specifics of using Physical Effects
If a substance should periodically exist in different physical conditions, the transition should be performed by the object (substance) itself by using reversible physical transformation such as phase transitions, ionization/recombination, dissociation/association, etc.
If a strong output action is needed in response to a weak input, then the transducer material should be brought to a near-critical condition. Then even a weak signal becomes stronger.
Example: To test a product, it is immersed in a liquid without gaseous inclusions. Then a pressure differential is generated between the product’s cavity and the environment above the liquid level. The hermeticity is monitored by detecting gas bubbles in the liquid. To enhance the sensitivity of the test, the liquid during the testing process is maintained in an overheated condition.
Group 5.5: Obtaining Particles of Substances
If particles, such as ions, are needed to solve the problem but their direct generation is impossible due to the problem’s specifications, the required particles should be obtained by decomposing a substance of a higher structural level, such as molecules.
If certain particles of a substance (e.g., molecules) are needed that are impossible to obtain directly or by using Standard 5.5.1, then these particles should be generated by building up or combining particles of a lower level, such as ions.
Example: Nanotechnology — assembling products from individual atoms
The simplest way of applying Standard 5.5.1 is to destroy the nearest higher “whole” or “excess” (negative ions) level, and the simplest way of applying Standard 5.5.2 is to complete build-up of the nearest lower “incomplete” level.
Example: Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used in the semiconductor industry to deposit various films on substrates. In CVD processes, the coating is deposited from a reactive gas. The chemicals (molecules) decompose (into atoms) at the high temperature in the reactor and recombine to form the desired coating (again, molecules) on the hot substrates.
Victor Fey and Eugene Rivin, Innovation on Demand, Cambridge University Press, 2005