The History of Architecture and the Future of Web Design

Modernism, The International Style and the History of Web Design

Left-to-right: AEG Turbine Factory (Peter Behrens, 1909); Glass Pavillion (Bruno Taut, 1914); Eiffel Tower (Gustave Eiffel/Émile Nouguier/Stephen Sauvestre, 1887–1889); Fallingwater House (Frank Lloyd Wright, 1935–1938); Van Nelle Factory (Leendert van der Vlugt, 1925–1931); Eames House (Charles Eames/Ray Eames, 1949); Kimbell Art Museum (Louis Kahn, 1969–1972)
Left-to-right: Farnsworth House (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, 1945–1951); Seagram Building (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe/Philip Johnson, 1958); Villa Savoye (Le Corbusier/Pierre Jeanneret, 1929–1931); Lovell House (Richard Neutra, 1927–1929); Glass House (Philip Johnson, 1949); Bauhaus School (Walter Gropius, 1926)

“Every period had its style: why was it that our period was the only one to be denied a style? By “style” was meant ornament. I said, “weep not. Behold! What makes our period so important is that it is incapable of producing new ornament. We have out-grown ornament, we have struggled through to a state without ornament. Behold, the time is at hand, fulfillment awaits us. Soon the streets of the cities will glow like white walls! Like Zion, the Holy City, the capital of heaven. It is then that fulfillment will have come.”

― Adolf Loos, Ornament and Crime

“You are under the shade of trees, vast lawns spread all round you. The air is clear and pure; there is hardly any noise. What, you cannot see where the buildings are ? Look through the charmingly diapered arabesques of branches out into the sky towards those widely-spaced crystal towers which soar higher than any pinnacle on earth.”

Plan Voisin (Le Corbusier, 1922–1925) circa 2011
Left-to-right: iOS 6 Calculator App (2012); iOS 7 Calculator App (2013)
Left-to-right: Windows 7 (2009); Windows 8 (2012)
Left-to-right: circa 2009; circa 2012
Left-to-right: circa 2009; circa 2013
Left-to-right: circa 2011; circa 2014; circa 2014
Left-to-right: circa 2008; circa 2012
Left-to-right: circa 2014; circa 2015

“When we sat down last November (to work on iOS 7), we understood that people had already become comfortable with touching glass, they didn’t need physical buttons, they understood the benefits,” says Ive. “So there was an incredible liberty in not having to reference the physical world so literally. We were trying to create an environment that was less specific. It got design out of the way.”

Jony Ive

Postmodern Architecture and the Present of Web Design

“I like complexity and contradiction in architecture. .. I speak of a complex and contradictory architecture based on the richness and ambiguity of modern experience…By embracing contradiction as well as complexity, I aim for vitality as well as validity. Architects can no longer afford to be intimidated by the puritanically moral language of orthodox Modern architecture. I like elements which are hybrid rather than ‘’pure,” compromising rather than “clean,” distorted rather than “straightforward,” ambiguous rather than “articulated,” perverse as well as impersonal, boring as well as “interesting,” conventional rather than “designed,” accommodating rather than excluding, redundant rather than simple, vestigial as well as innovating, inconsistent and equivocal rather than direct and clear. I am for messy vitality over obvious unity. I include the non sequitur and proclaim the duality. I am for richness of meaning rather than clarity of meaning; for the implicit function as well as the explicit function. I prefer “both-and” to “either-or,” black and white, and sometimes gray, to black or white. An architecture of complexity and contradiction has a special obligation toward the whole: its truth must be in its totality or its implications of totality. It must embody the difficult unity of inclusion rather than the easy unity of exclusion. More is not less.”

―Robert Venturi, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture

Left-to-right: Lieb House (Robert Venturi/Denise Scott Brown, 1967); Guild House (Robert Venturi, 1960–1963)
Vanna Venturi House (Robert Venturi, 1959–1964)
Left-to-right: Denver Central Library (Michael Graves, 1990); Gehry Residence (Frank Gehry, 1978); Neue Staatsgalerie (James Stirling, 1979–1984); Portland Building (Michael Graves, 1982); Piazza d’Italia (Charles Moore, 1978)
A Google Material Design diagram illustrating the relationship between depth and shadow
Fabulous — Motivate Me!
Google’s Santa Tracker
Dropbox User Guide home page circa January 2018
Left-to-right: circa May 2014, circa January 2018

Contemporary Architecture and the Future of Web Design

Left-to-right: Bay Adelaide Centre (WZMH Architects/KPMB Architects/Adamson Associates Architects, 2007–2016); Schermerhorn Symphony Center (Earl Swensson Associates/David M. Schwarz Architects/Hastings Architecture Associates, 2003–2005); The Pinnacle (Guangzhou Hanhua Architects & Engineers, 2008–2012)
Left-to-right: Vancouver Convention Centre (LMN Architects/MCM Architects/DA Architects + Planners, 2009); CCTV Headquarters (OMA, 2004–2012); Heydar Aliyev Center (Zaha Hadid Architects, 2007–2012)
Left-to-right: Prefabricated and modular construction of a skyscraper; prefabricated and modular construction of a family home; prefabricated home by Stillwater Dwellings
Left-to-right: Gateshead Millenium Bridge (WilkinsonEyre, 2000–2001); Gemma Observatory (Anmahian Winton Architects, 2015); Sharif-Ha House (Nextoffice/Alireza Taghaboni, 2013); sliding wood panels within the Murphy House (Richard Murphy Architects, 2012); Sliding House (dRMM, 2009)
Left-to-right: Campus Kolding (Henning Larsen Architects, 2014); Cloud Pavillion (MODU, 2015); Prairie House (ORAMBRA, 2011)
Illustrative example of Samantha Zhang’s modular design process
Cloud DCS Data Center facilities in Guangzhou
A React VR Video Application
Left-to-right: Los Terrenos (Tatiana Bilbao, 2016); Alila Yangshuo Hotel (Vector Architects, 2017); Vantablack Pavillion (Asif Khan, 2018); Fashion Tower (GRT Architects, 2015)



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