In 2006, the mayor of an Alpine village unveiled a mirror capable of reflecting the sunlight

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Viganella’s Square lighted up by the sun — Source:

Viganella is an Italian town located on the Alps, in the region Piedmont. As of December 2010, it had a population of 204. You might think that Viganella is a small mountain town just like many others, but you would be wrong. There is something more, something extraordinary. Until 2006, the town used to remain shadowed for eighty-three days per year — from November 11 to February 2. Viganella was built at the bottom of a steep-sided valley; therefore, in that period, the sun disappears. It hides behind one of the mountains that surround the town.

In 2005, the then-mayor…


Why We Should Condemn Communism as Much as We Condemn Nazi/Fascism

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Lenin, Trotsky, and Kamenev celebrating the second anniversary of the October Revolution

A hundred years ago, in 1921, the Italian Communist Party was born. These days, in Italy, this anniversary is being celebrated; but is such an occurrence worth celebrations?

Whenever an Italian politician says that Mussolini “did some positive things”, the public opinion horrifies, and it should. As a matter of fact, if we try to weigh the building of some infrastructures against the racial laws, the alliance with Hitler, and so on, then the outcome will be pretty straightforward. Hence, did Mussolini do any positive things? Yes, he did. Are those positive things enough to evaluate in a positive fashion…


Noor Inayat Khan

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On July 16, 1940, when Britain was experiencing its “darkest hour,” Prime Minister Winston Churchill met the Minister of Economic Warfare, Hugh Dalton. Dalton himself would have recorded in his diary that Churchill told him to “go and set Europe ablaze.” Accordingly, on July 22, the Special Operations Executive (SOE) was created. The SOE was a secret organization, and its purpose was to conduct espionage, sabotage, and subversion in occupied Europe against the Axis powers.

After the fall of France, Churchill acknowledged that Britain did not have the ability, both in terms of soldiers and resources, to win in an…


A Love-Hate Relationship

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Meeting of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler (1941)

The relationship between Hitler and Mussolini has always been of much interest to scholars and common people. It is known that Fascism inspired Nazism, but what kind of relationship did the two dictators have? As I will show, we can say that their relationship was a love-hate one. Here are four evidences of this.

1. When a German Jew Interviewed Mussolini

In 1932, the German journalist Emil Ludwig interviewed several times Benito Mussolini to draft a book on the Italian dictator. Ludwig had already interviewed Josif Stalin in 1931, as he wanted to tell the stories of the men who were ruling Europe at the time. The…


The Burning of Washington in 1814

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The US Capitol after the Burning of Washington. Watercolor and ink depiction from 1814, restored.

The United States Capitol has always been the temple of democracy. Since the Capitol Building is the seat of the legislative branch of the United States (US) federal government, it has often been the set of protests. Nevertheless, before the storming that occurred on January 6, 2021, the Capitol had been raided only once. On August 24, 1814 — in a climate of war that was much more severe than today — the British troops marched on the Capitol and burned down the parliament building, the presidential residence, and other monuments.

War of 1812

Since the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France in…


In 1945 Hitler ordered “all German facilities” to be destroyed

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Cologne (Germany) after the bombing of WWII

When 1944 was about to turn into a new year, Nazi Germany — the Third Reich — was about to collapse. Adolf Hitler had tried a desperate counteroffensive against the Allies in Western Europe, called the Ardennes Offensive, but it had eventually failed. Moreover, on the Eastern front, the Red Army was quickly conquering those countries that Germany had previously seized during the first years of World War II. When the Allies were all around the core of the Third Reich, Hitler finally understood that the war was lost. Nevertheless, he was not willing to sign an armistice. …


One of the weirdest myths around Jesus Christ

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“Entry of the Christ in Jerusalem” — Jean-Léon Gérôme — 1897

Although anyone has his/her own opinion on religion, all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus of Nazareth really existed. However, there is still uncertainty on whether the Bible actually gives us an accurate description of his life or not.

Jesus Christ’s Life

Jesus was born in Bethlehem in 7/1 BC. After having been baptized by John the Baptist, he spent his life preaching, just like many other religious leaders of that time. Because of his ability to gather a great number of followers, and because of the content of his messages (that is, calls for peace and brotherhood, in particular among the…


Should a Statesman Come to Terms with Terrorists?

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The Palestinian Terrorist Attack to the SIOT’s Oil Pipeline in Trieste (1972)

Before talking about the deal that limited the Palestinian terrorists’ activity in Italy in the ‘70s we have to go back to 1967, the year in which the phenomenon of Palestinian political violence started.

The Birth of the Palestinian Resistance Movements

In the aftermath of the Six-Day War (1967), the Arab world realized that Israel had become a state equipped with strong military forces. That war had been fought by an Islamic states alliance that involved Egypt, Syria, and Jordan on one side, and by the sole Israel on the other. Israel had been able to fight a war on more fronts, and ultimately to win it…


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I joined Medium in January, 2020. When I started, Medium seemed to me like writing’s Heaven on Earth. I read people writing about literature, history, politics, and everyday stories. Anyone was free to develop her/his ideas and boost her/his creativity. I soon realized that I needed a publication to write for. As a matter of fact, if we take Medium as a lottery, you take one of its numbers whenever you publish one of your drafts. However, if you write for a publication, then your story is worth twice those numbers. “” gave me the opportunity to reach…


The unknown story of “Mad Jack”

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Troops from 51st Highland Division unloading stores from tank landing craft on the opening day of the Allied invasion of Sicily, 10 July 1943

Jack Churchill was born in Colombo, British Ceylon — the British Crown colony of present-day Sri Lanka — on September 16, 1906. Churchill’s family was British and, in 1917, he and his family returned to England. He graduated from the Royal Military College in 1926 and, after that, he was sent to Burma where he served with the Manchester Regiment. While there, he got his first real combat experience. …

Michele Caimmi

History, Politics & Economics | A place for uncomfortable truths

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