The art of writing provided [humans] with a transpersonal memory. [Humans] were given an artificially extended and verifiable memory of objects and events not present to sight or recollection. Individuals applied their minds to symbols rather than things and went beyond the world of concrete experience into the world of conceptual relations created within an enlarged time and space universe . . . Writing enormously enhanced a capacity for abstract thinking . . .[Human] activities and powers were roughly extended in proportion to the increased use and perfection of written records.