Navigating the Nexus of BPA as an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical (EDC) in Wastewater

Avni Kulshreshtha
6 min readFeb 24, 2024


In the intricate web of environmental pollutants, Bisphenol A (BPA) emerges as a potent disruptor, particularly within the realm of wastewater. Defined as an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical (EDC), BPA’s pervasive presence in wastewater streams warrants careful examination due to its implications for environmental sustainability and public health. This blog aims to elucidate the role of BPA as an EDC in wastewater contexts, unraveling its origins, impacts, and potential avenues for mitigation.

BPA as an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical (EDC)

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound widely utilized in the production of plastics, epoxy resins, and thermal paper. As an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical (EDC), BPA possesses the ability to interfere with hormonal systems in organisms, mimicking or blocking the actions of natural hormones. This disruption can lead to a myriad of adverse effects, including reproductive disorders, developmental anomalies, and immune dysregulation. Its high solubility in water, ranging from 120 to 300 mg/L, contributes to its prevalence in aquatic environments. Despite efforts to mitigate its release, BPA persists in water sources due to incomplete removal during conventional wastewater treatment processes.

BPA in Wastewater

The journey of BPA into wastewater streams encompasses diverse pathways, spanning industrial discharges, domestic sewage, and runoff from consumer products. Industrial processes, such as plastic manufacturing and thermal paper production, contribute to BPA’s release into wastewater, while consumer goods containing BPA can leach into sewage systems during use and disposal. Once in wastewater, BPA presents a persistent challenge due to its solubility and resistance to conventional treatment methods.

The presence of BPA in wastewater carries profound implications for both environmental integrity and human health. In aquatic ecosystems, BPA can disrupt endocrine function in organisms, leading to reproductive abnormalities, altered behavior, and impaired growth.

For example, in fish populations, BPA can disrupt the reproductive cycle, leading to reduced fertility, impaired egg and sperm production, and altered mating behaviors.

Studies have shown that BPA can interfere with embryonic development, causing abnormalities in organ formation and growth. Additionally, BPA exposure has been associated with neurological and behavioral impairments in developing organisms, which can impact their survival and fitness.

BPA exposure has also been shown to compromise the immune systems of aquatic organisms. BPA can disrupt immune function by altering the production and activity of immune cells, making organisms more susceptible to infections and diseases. This weakened immune response can exacerbate the effects of other environmental stressors and lead to population declines.

One of the most concerning aspects of BPA contamination in natural water environments is its ability to bioaccumulate and bio-magnify through the food chain. BPA can accumulate in the tissues of aquatic organisms, particularly those higher up the food chain, such as predatory fish and mammals. As these organisms consume contaminated prey, BPA concentrations can increase significantly, posing a heightened risk to top predators, including humans who consume seafood that raises concerns regarding its potential carcinogenicity and endocrine-disrupting effects.

Challenges in BPA Removal from Wastewater

Removing BPA from wastewater presents a formidable challenge due to its high solubility and resistance to conventional treatment methods. While physical separation, biological treatments, and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) offer potential avenues for BPA removal, each method has its limitations, particularly concerning efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and scalability.

Navigating for Solutions

Addressing the challenge of BPA contamination in wastewater demands a multifaceted approach, integrating technological innovations, policy interventions, and public awareness initiatives.

Addressing the BPA-wastewater nexus necessitates innovative approaches and emerging technologies tailored to enhance removal efficiency and sustainability. Research efforts are underway to develop novel adsorbents, membrane technologies, and catalytic processes optimized for BPA removal from wastewater. Additionally, advancements in bioremediation techniques harness the degradation capabilities of microorganisms to metabolize BPA effectively.

Methods for BPA Removal

Various methods have been developed to remove BPA from aqueous solutions, aiming to mitigate its impact on natural water environments. These methods include physical separation, biological treatments, and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs).

1. Physical Separation:

Physical separation techniques involve the removal of BPA molecules from water through physical mechanisms such as adsorption and filtration.

  • Adsorption: Adsorption is a process where BPA molecules adhere to the surface of a solid material, known as an adsorbent. Common adsorbents used for BPA removal include activated carbon, zeolites, and silica gel. These materials have high surface areas and pore volumes, providing ample sites for BPA molecules to attach. The adsorption process relies on physical forces such as Van der Waals interactions and electrostatic attractions.

Advantages of adsorption include its versatility, as various adsorbents can be tailored to specific water treatment applications. Additionally, adsorption is effective at removing BPA even at low concentrations, making it suitable for both industrial and municipal wastewater treatment. However, adsorption capacity may decrease over time as the adsorbent becomes saturated with BPA, necessitating regeneration or replacement of the adsorbent material.

  • Filtration: Filtration involves the passage of water through a physical barrier, known as a filter, to trap BPA molecules and other contaminants. Filters can be made from a variety of materials, including sand, activated carbon, and membrane filters. Membrane filtration, in particular, offers precise control over pore size, allowing for the removal of BPA and other pollutants based on size exclusion.

Filtration is effective at removing suspended particles and colloidal matter, including BPA, from water. It is commonly used in conjunction with other treatment methods, such as adsorption or biological treatments, to achieve comprehensive removal of contaminants. However, filtration efficiency may be influenced by factors such as flow rate, pressure, and filter media characteristics.

2. Biological Methods:

Biological treatments harness the metabolic activities of microorganisms to degrade BPA molecules into simpler, less toxic compounds.

  • Biodegradation: Biodegradation is a natural process where microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, break down organic compounds like BPA into smaller molecules through enzymatic reactions. Certain bacterial species, such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus, have been found to possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for BPA degradation.

Biodegradation of BPA typically occurs under aerobic conditions, where oxygen is available to support microbial growth and metabolic activity. However, some microorganisms can also degrade BPA under anaerobic conditions, albeit at a slower rate. Biodegradation pathways for BPA may involve sequential enzymatic reactions, leading to the formation of intermediates that are subsequently mineralized or incorporated into microbial biomass.

Advantages of biological methods include their sustainability and environmental friendliness, as they utilize natural processes to remove BPA from water. Additionally, biodegradation can be highly specific, targeting BPA molecules with minimal impact on non-target compounds. However, treatment times for biological methods may vary depending on factors such as microbial activity, BPA concentration, and environmental conditions.

3. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs):

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) involve the generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (•OH) to oxidize and degrade organic pollutants like BPA.

  • Hydroxyl Radical Generation: AOPs rely on the production of hydroxyl radicals through various mechanisms, such as ozonation, photolysis, and Fenton chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals are extremely reactive species that can rapidly react with BPA molecules, breaking chemical bonds and leading to their degradation into simpler compounds such as carbon dioxide and water.

Ozonation involves the introduction of ozone (O3) into water, where it decomposes to form hydroxyl radicals in the presence of organic pollutants like BPA. Photolysis utilizes ultraviolet (UV) or visible light to generate hydroxyl radicals from water molecules through photochemical reactions. Fenton chemistry involves the addition of ferrous ions (Fe2+) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water, where they react to produce hydroxyl radicals via catalytic oxidation.

Advantages of AOPs include their high efficacy in degrading BPA and other organic pollutants, even at low concentrations. AOPs can target a wide range of contaminants and are effective under a variety of water chemistry conditions. However, AOPs can be energy-intensive and costly to implement, requiring specialized equipment and reagents. Additionally, byproducts (Aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, chlorinated byproducts etc.) formed during AOPs may require further treatment or disposal to minimize environmental impact.

Policy and Awareness Initiatives

Comprehensive strategies to mitigate BPA contamination in wastewater require a synergistic approach, encompassing regulatory measures, public awareness campaigns, and industry collaboration. Strengthening wastewater treatment standards and implementing stringent monitoring protocols can help curb BPA discharge into water bodies. Moreover, raising awareness about the environmental and health risks associated with BPA can foster behavioral changes and promote the adoption of eco-friendly alternatives.


The convergence of Bisphenol A (BPA) as an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical (EDC) in wastewater underscores the imperative of proactive intervention to safeguard environmental and public health. By recognizing BPA’s role as a pervasive contaminant in wastewater and implementing targeted strategies for mitigation, stakeholders can work towards a future where water resources are free from the shadow of endocrine disruption. Through collaborative efforts and a commitment to sustainability, we can navigate the nexus of BPA in wastewater towards a cleaner, healthier environment for all.



Avni Kulshreshtha

An environmentalist & wildlife photographer who's dedicated her life to raising awareness about importance of protecting ecosystems & species that inhabit them.