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Photo by Alora Griffiths on Unsplash

Big data is affecting running like it affects all aspects of life. This article will investigate how big data affects running and how you can use big data (and small data) to improve your running.

What is Big Data?

The term “big data” refers to the collection and analysis of data that occurs on a large scale. Wikipedia defines big data as: “data sets with sizes beyond the ability of commonly used software tools to capture, curate, manage, and process data within a tolerable elapsed time.”

Big data comes in structured, semi-structured, and unstructured formats. The ability of computers to analyze unstructured data is one of the biggest reasons for growth in big data since so much of everyday life is unstructured. …

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Photo by David Ballew on Unsplash

C++ has the capability of creating, accessing, and editing text files. In this article I will demonstrate how to do this. I will not be discussing how to work with binary files.

FileStream Objects, Header Files, File Access, and Filenames

C++ uses a file stream abstraction for handling text files. A file stream is data that is either going into a text file to be stored or going out of a text file to be loaded into a program. The input (>>) and the output (<<) operators are used to stream data either into a file or into a program.

To perform file input (receiving data from a file), you must include the ifstream header file in your program. To perform file output (send data to a file) you must include the ofstream header file in your program. …

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Photo courtesy of @George Kubas II

You may not have heard of senior women’s runner Jeannie Rice because she didn’t dominate the running world as a high school or collegiate runner and has never been a professional runner. In fact, she didn’t even start running until she was 35 years old (she is 71 now). And Rice doesn’t have support from a shoe company or running equipment supplier and she isn’t a social media running influencer.

But if you follow senior runners, especially at the half marathon and marathon racing levels, Jeannie Rice is a superstar.

Rice has current American records for her age group in the half marathon and the marathon. Her current half marathon record time is 1:38:42 and her marathon record time is 3:27:50, which is also the current world record for her age group. These are times runners half her age would be proud of. How does Rice do it at an age when most runners are happy just to jog a couple of miles? …


Michael McMillan

Mike McMillan writes about computer programming and running. You can find his programming courses at

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