What is a thing? Is it a physical object? Even if we described every thing, did we describe everything?
Apart from our particulars, such as cats, books and trees, we have their properties such as redness, roundness, hardness, etc.. Dealing with particulars and their properties seems like we are only concerned about the static part of reality, whereas the human evolution and weather changes are as real as identity and property. These events or processes involving changes can be treated as features of reality and this makes our understanding of reality not simply based on static description of what is there in a world at a particular time. This is a short introduction to the idea of change.
It is doubtful whether change is necessary for all events. It could be said that your hair being black for a period of time is a static event, though calling it fact might be preferred. However, it seems clear that a process demands that a change must be involved. A notion of the process includes multiple changes occurring in a particular sequence. Distinguishing event from the process based on simplicity is a hard task, but we can maintain that process requires complex series of changes in a particular order. The order is important as in some cases, the reversing of the order might give another process. It is a basic idea that an enduring subject necessary to count a change. Following are some instances of changes that could be observed based on a particular and its properties.
A change could come in different forms,
1. A loss or gain of a property
When I crushed an apple, it gains some flatness and lost it roundness. The process consists of two events each consisting of single changes.
2. A change within a property
When I heat a can of water for several minutes, its temperature increases. Say, for example, it changed from 30 degrees to 60 degrees, and this change comes gradually in varying quantities, when the water heats up, it keeps the same determinable property of temperature and that property changes.
3. Change could be of something coming into or going out of existence.
When you disassemble a mobile phone, it is reasonable to say that a change has occurred and the particular mobile phone no longer exists. Because the phone is an integrated whole, which is more than its parts, and it requires a totality of all those parts to produce the effect that a mobile phone can produce, which its individual parts cannot.
In all these cases, it is assumed that there is subject under change, which endures this change. When we think of space and time as more alike, this idea can be questioned.
The challenge comes from the concept of temporal parts. When we use the term parts, it often refers to spatial one that exists with the particular. Nevertheless, it seems rational to believe in temporal parts too. That is, parts in time. With the close analogy between space and time, it could be said for a handicapped man has both the property of having a hand and not having it. The apple has both the property of being round and flat. These apparent contradictions of bearing different properties are dissolved if it can be stated that the parts bearing those properties are different from each other.This view of properties, which consist of temporal parts is called perdurantism. In contrast to endurantism which is based on the belief in wholly present particulars endure through the changes.
According to perdurantism, when a change occurs, it is not a single thing that bears the contrary properties, rather it’s the different temporal parts which undergo the change. Instead of a subject that undergoes change of properties, the case would be of a succession of things with static properties. Change becomes an illusion created by succession of temporal properties.
But in what sense these, disconnected temporal parts belong to the same thing? There is none according to perdurantists.we can’t say a change occurred, if there is no subject, or an enduring thing. The handicapped man is just some construction out of the sequence of static parts. And the connection between these static parts is necessary so that there is an enduring thing throughout the change.
Suitably connecting the temporal parts is thus a problem in this view. At the end, we can’t talk about change, if it consists of changeless components. Rather than successions of changeless parts, our world might be of changes that occur in dynamic, smooth, indivisible, and integrated wholes. Most process in our world,Seem to be an instance of integrated whole, or substances that cannot be reduced to its parts and has a properties that is superior to its components.