A one party system ran the United States, and the United States ran the world.
The US had checks and balances — governing required consensus, and the people were freed from kings. To protect speech, the framers left out a rule against conspiracies to monopolize the vote.
Political parties formed to monopolize the vote. The losing parties kept ganging up until only two parties remained. Resembling vast and immortal corporations, they consolidated all political power.
The parties need mass media to win elections. Media literally intermediates reality and programs voters by framing the acceptable parameters of any debate. …