The Poverty-Degradation Trap

A market for mangrove wood in the Volta Delta, Ghana (
  1. The environmental set of problems: climate change, soil erosion, deforestation, desertification, aquifer depletion, ocean dead zones, ocean acidification, biodiversity & habitat loss, pollution, etc.
The ruins of Timgad, a Roman City inAlgeria that deforested its surroundings in the 300s, and was subsequently discovered under 6 feet of sand in the 1700s.
A rice field in the Seville Region, no longer able to grow crops due to lack of freshwater (photo by Neal Spackman, July 2021)

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