Regarding Books 10–12:
1) To be civilized is to have been brought out of a state of barbarism. To be able to construct within the arts of life. To elevate to the scale of humanity. Perhaps even to enlighten, refine, and polish the way of the behave. It relates to being a citizen of a city or state aswell. It is an act for sure, it has to be done. One does not become civilized by sitting on their rear. Citizens must fear the gods. They also must placate them, through ritual and dogma.
2) We can tell whether Odysseus encounters civilized people or not because Odysseus defines civilized and uncivilized.He says, “What kind of men live in this country where I find myself? Men of violence, savages who know not justice? or kind people that know right from wrong? …I wished they had stayed in Phaiaicia; I might have gone on to some other powerful king, who would have entertained me and helped me on my way..” So, this reiterates that Odysseus believes civilized people: 1) show xenia 2) theoudes fear the gods 3) metis resourceful intelligence; seek justice and use their brains . Civilized people that encounter Odysseus always give him food and drink, and if they can they bathe and oil him. They always wait till after he is done eating to ask questions, and he usually expects to be given a gift to aid him on his nostos.
Regarding Book 13:
1) We can compare the Phaiacians with the Cicones, Laistrygonians, and the Aiolians.
The Phaiaicians helped him get all the basic necessities for his journey. Food, a ship, drinks, riches, offers to let Odysseus marry his daughter Princess Nausicaa, and they even take swiftly all the way to Ithace safe and sound, without even waking him up. Is Phaia someplace Odysseus could call home? I dont think so. There not enough riches and spledors and too many similiarities to Ithaca for Phaicia to be a place that Odysseus could spend more years on.
The Cicones did not enjoy Odysseus’ arrival. They were on the side of the Trojans during the war, so when Odysseus showed up with his crew after the war and sacked and pillaged their city, they were not very happy. But, they made an epic comeback and attacked on horseback, killing 72 of Odysseu’s men. They leave to escape and find themselves at the cave of the Cyclops, which they are lured into because of the milk and cheeses. They are trapped in their with the Cyclops, and a few men are killed before Odysseus is able to devise a plot to get out of the cave. They then run and leave the island and quickly as possible. Could this place ever be home to Odysseus? No. Not a chance.
The Laistrygonians were not that friendly either. They were in the Land of the Giants. The Giants there ate some of Odysseus’ men after they wandered into their queens house. Once they saw her and realized what danger they were in, she screeched out for her husband who was even uglier that she was. Then that made the whole place go crazy and everyone go crazy. They started throwing rocks the size of boulders at Odysseus and his ship when he was facilitating his escape from this dreadful island. Could he ever call this place home? I highly doubt it. I dont think he would be comfortable being hunted.