The Eight-Step Process for Developing an Organizational Change Strategy

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Dr. John Kotter provides an 8-step process for developing organizational change strategy. Below I provide an outline for this widely accepted approach and elaborate on the meaning of each step. It is important to note that organizational change does not occur overnight and more often than not requires years of commitment before institutionalized change is realized. For the sake of discussion we will refer to the organizational change as the “opportunity for change”.

Increase Urgency

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I do recognize the awesome potential to be realized with these developments but as with all great advances there will be good and bad to come of it. Also, don’t mistake my concern as wild paranoia of the future. My objective here is to think broadly… even if it does come off a little crazy. Seriously though, this IS pretty crazy.

Safety First

Early in my career I was assigned to assess the criticality of weapon system software. It was during this time that I developed the skill of envisioning that which has yet to happen. I spent a lot of time…

What do Systems Theory, Explainable Artificial Intelligence, Cybersecurity, and Safety Engineering all Have in Common?

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When it comes to Resilient Systems — Rubber balls are the Original Gangstas.

Resilient, resilience, and resiliency. Boy do those terms get thrown around a hell of a lot. A few weeks ago I was pretty amused and sort of shocked to hear resilience used in a toothpaste commercial. Ah yes, buzzwords. You’ve gotta love em’. But this got me thinking about the term, what it really means versus how it’s used.

I’d like to get it all out on the table by first proposing that system safety and cybersecurity engineers are leading the charge on resiliency. Their work is…

An Overview of U.S. Port Authorities and the Department of Homeland Security Policy Reform Initiative.

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U.S. Port Authorities

U.S. port authorities can be broken into three major groups. Each fulfills a function that is needed to support the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHLS) policy reform initiative.

Port authorities are managed by a captain in the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The port officer is responsible for providing security on the water. They also oversee the inspection and regulation of ships coming in and out of the port. All day to day operations are handled by the port officer and can only be designated to a single port at any given time

Another role in U.S. port authority is…

Getting Back to the Basics

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The Motivation

Many opinions were shared regarding Boeing’s organizational safety culture following the most recent 787 Max crash. In fact, Forbes wrote a piece (which jumped out at me) focusing on the frequency of the words “safety” and “profit” used in their 2018 annual report and the ratio between them. While I believe the article makes an interesting point I do disagree with the inference. Yes. Safety culture starts with executive leadership. Sure. The annual report is their opportunity to share the companies core values and vision. But the frequency of the word “safety” in such a report does not carry enough…


Risk Introduced by Emerging Technologies

In this article we consider the use of autonomy for a hypothetical system (the SMART Catapult). This example is very relevant to design decisions we often see in industry. The increasing pace of innovation presents challenges to safety critical system designs. As such, prior to implementation, it is necessary to carefully consider emerging technologies which offer great potential benefit, yet hold significant risk for injury to people, property and/or the environment. Ethically, safety should always take precedence. …

Will Blockchain Save Us?

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Reliable authentication is a common obstacle for systems participating in the Internet of Things (IoT).

Whether you’re dealing with centralized networks, supply chains, or combat systems the inability to authenticate can be the difference between success and failure or life and death. The use of hashes, Proof of Work (PoW), decentralized P2P networks, and consensus make Blockchain a very safe and secure way to store and maintain data for the IoT.

To successfully tamper with a Blockchain a bad actor would need to first change all the blocks on the chain, then redo the PoW for each of the newly…


Are you a Safety Professional? Maybe an industry professional who was tapped on the shoulder to fill a Safety Practitioner role?

Was there an accident on your worksite? What did you do? Did you have the proper preparation to perform a workplace safety accident analysis?

As a Safety Professional/Practitioner in the field you may have asked yourself, Where do I start? How do I begin? What is the process?

Below I provide an example to help answer these questions and more.

Incident Description

During an onsite corporate leadership tour an accidental fall occurred. A Systems Engineering Staff Member ascended a…

Choosing a Service Oriented Architecture to Replace a Legacy Monolith


Software maintenance can be a grueling activity if a systems architectural design is not set up well to support it. For this analysis we consider a legacy system solution which is constructed around a large monolithic architecture. A monolithic architecture is the traditional unified model for the design of a software program. This kind of architecture is designed to be self-contained; components of the program are interconnected and interdependent (WhatIs, 2016).

The Safety Critical (SC) System under analysis provides weapon and attack control functions and the initiation and control of the weapon launch sequence for both tactical and defensive weapons…


A Functional Breakdown

A Blockchain is a sequential archive used to keep records of data. Computer Scientists/Cryptologists Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta originally proposed the technology in 1991 as a means for time-stamping the creation of intellectual property using digital documents. They believed by using this method property rights could be fixed before others had the opportunity to perform copywrites (Yermack, 2017). It wasn’t until 2009 that Blockchain gain momentum when an unidentified person using the alias Satoshi Nakamoto applied the technology as the basis for creating a digital cryptocurrency. This asset is well-known today as Bitcoin.

Blockchain is an open (available…

Nicolas Malloy

Principal Engineer | PhD Student | Passionate about Resilience Engineering and Data Science

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