System and model analysis
The Thinkium core engine ensures that the same content runs on different computing nodes through a consensus protocol and allows any node to join without obtaining permission. At the same time, an effective system should have the following two basic properties: security, all results are Correct; active, each valid request is processed within a fixed (small) time.
The Thinkium core engine starts with solving problems in real business. It must be able to support massive user-level applications. It must solve the decentralization, consistency, and scalability issues of the public chain, and meet the multi-chain parallel capability and fast transaction confirmation capability, high-frequency transaction carrying capacity, extremely high system security and availability, Turing completeness of smart contracts, high flexibility, and scalability of the system, easy-to-use development capabilities, data privacy protection capabilities, etc. We define a blockchain model based on transactions, quantify parameter indicators
such as decentralization, consistency, system throughput, and scalability, and propose related functions to build a quantifiable blockchain model, and finally design an efficient consensus protocol model.
1. The key to the decentralization of the blockchain system is the decentralization of consensus. There are two main purposes of decentralization: the structure of the system is decentralized so that it will not be invalidated by a few nodes being dropped, betrayed, or attacked; System participants reach consensus, which increases the transparency and credibility of the system and prevents the system from being controlled by oligarchs.
2. Blockchain is a decentralized system. There is no central node to maintain the block set. The consensus algorithm allows different nodes to maintain the same set, to achieve consistency. However, there may be malicious nodes in the system, which will affect the operation of other nodes and the consistency of the entire network. At the same time, due to factors such as network delay and consensus, it is not possible to guarantee strong consistency of the data of the entire network at any time, only weak consistency.
3. The performance of the blockchain system is mainly reflected in the time required for the system to confirm the transaction. Generally, it is characterized by two parameters: the confirmation time (the time required for transaction confirmation) and the throughput (the maximum number of confirmed transactions per unit time can be completed). The confirmation time is the shortest cycle for a user to make a transaction. If the confirmation time of a system is long, it will cause a poor user experience and limit the system’s application scenarios. If the throughput is too small to handle all transaction requests, then some transactions will be blocked or discarded,
resulting in increased latency of the entire system. A discussion of performance is only meaningful if the system meets decentralization and consistency. Blockchain
systems confirm a transaction and need to ensure that all participants reach consensus to optimize performance, the computational complexity and communication complexity of the consensus algorithm should be improved.
4. When the blockchain system reaches its processing bottleneck, it must discard redundant requests and reduce system availability, so it needs scalability to break
through the system limit. Blockchain scalability includes system throughput scalability, load scalability, functional scalability, and update scalability. We designed a model to evaluate the scalability of the blockchain system and analyzed that the blockchain system should achieve scalability through parallelism.
5. The factors of the efficiency of the consensus algorithm mainly include the delay of consensus calculation, the delay of consensus communication, and the delay of the allocation of consensus permissions. To improve the efficiency of the consensus mechanism, the above factors need to be optimized under the premise of ensuring the decentralization and security of the system. By analyzing specific optimization methods, we conclude that in a system with rapidly growing performance requirements, it is still possible to meet the system’s performance requirements by increasing the number of chains.
6. Based on the analysis of the theoretical model above, we systematically designed a set of efficient, scalable, decentralized, safe, and reliable consensus protocol models. In this model, the blockchain system is a tree structure, and each node of the tree represents a chain, and the non-leaf nodes represent the structural blockchain, which is responsible for consensus on the node-set and block set of the blockchain corresponding to all its child nodes; the leaf nodes represent the transaction blockchain and are responsible for consensus on a subset of transaction data. The number of blockchains is dynamically adjusted as the size of the data transaction set changes. It has been proved that the blockchain system meets the decentralization conditions, and the performance does not decrease with the increase of the number of system nodes and the size of the transaction data set.
This is an overview of Thinkium core engine mechanism, this provides to users the benefit of security in assets and accessibility, in recent times this has been a matter of concern to users and developers but with Thinkium there is a solution.
Thinkuim offers a multi-chain structure and multi-level implementation which comes in four-layer structure.
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