The traditional incumbents are not just sitting idle. This is a race between established leaders (GM, Ford, Toyota, Nissan, BMW, Daimler etc.) and the ambitious start-ups (Tesla) and the digital giants (e.g., Alphabet’s Waymo) jockeying their way into the sector during this period of transformation. Do not under-estimate the traditional leaders. This is about scaling up production of physical (albeit more digital) products. If Tesla misses the window to achieve the requisite scale, then it faces even tougher competition from others who have all stepped forward to adapt their business models to electric drive train and introduce level 3 and level 4 automation. Interesting space to watch and learn.