Android manufacturers have always been haemorrhaging cash.

Yep, legacy and regional OEMs aren’t faring well. That’s not “Android manufacturers are hemorrhaging cash” though, that’s “some…”. Unless you’re against capitalism and creative destruction, it’s utterly normal to have winners and losers though.

The only relevant figure would be ecosystem-wide; I don’t have it. I can only observe that, however badly some Android OEMs are faring…

a) some are faring very well

b) non-Android OEMs are all dead, so… faring even worse ?

The Mobile market is very competitive. I don’t think using Android makes it harder for OEMs (see b) ), but it certainly changes the skillset required to thrive, which I think explains why legacy OEMs are struggling. Same as when PC OEMs mopped the floor with minicomputer OEMs, all of whom failed their transition even when they finally got the message.