Voiced Retroflex Nasals.

While both Urdu and Punjabi have the usual dental nasal /n/ represented by ن. Punjabi has an additional letter for the retroflex nasal /ɳ/. This is represented by ݨ (In Pashto the ڼ makes this sound). If you are making the dental nasal ن sound, you just have to touch your teeth as you make the /n/ sound. However, in the case of the retroflex nasal, you would need to fold your tongue while making the /n/ sound. Think of this as the difference in sounds as you go from a ر to a ڑ except with a ن.


Back in 2018, Lil Nas X, an artist from Atlanta, Georgia released his single “Old Town Road”. By March 2019 the song was all over the Billboard charts: the Hot 100, the Hot Country Songs and the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop charts all had it. But a week after it charted on the Hot Country, it was taken off by billboard for not being country enough[1]. While “Old Town Road” was taken off the country charts, it still remained on the R&B/Hip-Hop charts.

I had always been under the impression that the billboard charts were a representation of what’s playing on genre-specific…

Now that the 11th Season of Coke Studio has ended and Ko Ko Korina has been declared one of the worst covers in Pakistani Music History. I think it’s finally time for a post-mortem.

Let me start by saying that I quite liked the new Ko Ko Korina, and I don’t really understand why the song has been panned so much. Everyone from Human Rights Minister to Waheed Murad’s son have weighed in their opinions. Even though my taste in music isn’t something that anyone would ever call “refined”, But like everyone else I guess I can try to be…

Osama Khalid

Thoughts on Music, Language and Data

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