Photo by Gayatri Malhotra on Unsplash

This post covers a basic introduction to cryptographic accumulators and their construction using RSA groups of unknown order. I decided to write this post after reading this paper. The paper is a very good read if you want dive deeper.

A cryptographic accumulator is a short binding commitment to a set of elements and allows for, short membership proofs for any element in the set and/or, non-membership proofs for elements not inside the set. These proofs, also called witnesses (witness to element being accumulated in the accumulator), can be verified against the commitment. …

The lifecycle of an operation in tezos

This piece covers the lifecycle of an operation in tezos, starting at its creation and following the operation until it is added to a block on the Tezos blockchain. The goal of this post is to create a better understanding of how tezos operations work by illustrating the different components that take part in the lifecycle of an operation. This post assumes familiarity with the tezos proof-of-stake mechanism.

Tezos’ modular design allows two major components to be distinguished: the network shell and the economic protocol. The network shell has a generic definition of an operation. However, actual operation types and…

“Matrix movie still” by Markus Spiske on Unsplash

You must have heard about WhatsApp using end to end encryption.

What is it?

In layman’s words, every message that you sent to your friend, is encrypted on your device, this encrypted message passes through network and a whole bunch of servers, reaches your friend’s device, and finally, it is decrypted on friend’s device. So as long as underlying cryptography is intact, you can be assured that no one else other than your friend knows about your dirty little secret.

Is it as simple as it sounds?

No. Purpose of this post is to give you the sneak peek of…

This blog post is summary of more detailed chapters about the same topic in the bitcoin book.

“four round silver-colored and gold-colored Bitcoins” by Thought Catalog on Unsplash


Traditional Financial Systems

Barter → Cash → Credit

Basics of Authentication

Authentication is a mechanism to guarantee that entities are who they claim they are, or that the information has not been modified by unauthorized parties. In this post, I am talking about entity authentication which is also referred to as identification. Entity authentication techniques assure one party through the acquisition of corroborative evidence, of both the identity of a second party involved and that the second was active at the time evidence was created or acquired. For example, when you are trying to access your bank account online through your bank’s website, You are asked to enter login credentials, your…

Amit Panghal

Works @Kaleido | Worked @TQ| NYU Courant and IITB Alumnus | Writes about cryptocurrencies, blockchain and security

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