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Image @ Wallpapertip.

What a nice dog the cat sincerely is.
And what a nice cat the dog sincerely is.
Who can’t say Yes! to that fact?
We like cat. You like dog.
You like dog. We like cat.
Thus both the same. No?

Cat is small, with number 4 legs…
Though slightly more.
Dog is big, with number 4 leg…
Though slightly less.
Cat tail in same place as dog tail…
Though more leftish.
Dog tail in same place as cat tail…
Though slightly rightish.


i) Cats are animals.
ii) Dogs are animals.
iii) Thereforely, cats are dogs.

© Paul Austin Murphy 2020

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Image from Wikipedia.

I wanna tell you about the purest of pure evil.
Wayne (for that’s be his name) has many dangerous tattoos.
Yea man! Tattoos of dangerous skulls in dangerous poses.
His scary t-shirts have skulls on dem too. (Skulls are evil.)
Wayne’s also got a goatee made out of hair (which grows outta his skin).
He says mothafurkaar a lot too.
And likes the freshest Metal.

Wayne once short-changed someone by couple of pence.
Smokes sweet dope for breakfast.
Drinks Jack Daniels for din-dins (though he doesn’t like it).
Only changes his underpants when on a date.
And, worst of all, visits his mummy but once a fortnight!

© Paul Austin Murphy 2020

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The American philosopher Michael J. Loux seems to be a master of playing games with modal terms — at least within this particular 2002 discussion of bare objects (i.e., within ontology).

Now it’s often been said that modal terms form a “closed circle” in that the definition of one term must include reference to all, some or at least one other modal terms (i.e., …

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