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Image created by author using Matplotlib

We always see voltage specifications mentioned almost on every electrical gadget. Whether it be some development board, mobile / tablet/laptop charging adapter down to every single IC which gets used in electronic circuitry. But do we really understand what exactly those voltage ratings are telling us? Today in this article, we will try to understand it’s meaning. Starting from the most basic element, an Atom, we will build our understanding intuitively to understand what does a voltage means conceptually. So let’s get started!

The Atom


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A telltale story of how I created an Altium Database library for our company with the help of Python programming.

How it started Recently I had started a couple of small projects in our company. And while I was designing schematic and PCBs in Altium, there was a thing that was bothering me. As in most of the projects, most of the components in my projects were getting reused from our existing design. However, in order to use those components, I was having to recall which projects might have used the part which I was needing for my project, open…


In this part, we will build on theoretical base we learnt in part 1 and code the A* algorithm in Python.

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  • Unity Simulator, Python Environment Installation and Starter Files
    Before beginning to code anything, we need to get our setup and tools installed. We begin this by downloading required Unity simulator that’s appropriate for your operating system from here. Next, we get required Python libraries installed. I would encourage you to create a separate Python environment (in any IDE of your choice) so as to keep it clean and separate. Follow installation instructions from this github repo. Finally, we download this github repo to get our start files. …


In this tutorial we will learn and code a very famous algorithm commonly used for path planning called A* (A — Star)

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  • Introduction We will be using an open source simulator provided by Udacity to make a drone fly from a start location to a goal. Planning is a one of the core capabilities of any autonomous vehicle. Before any autonomous vehicle can embark on a mission, it needs to have a plan, which is nothing but a series of actions that the vehicle must take in order to safely and efficiently move from some initial location to some goal location. To start with a planning problem, we need to have following — a) A set of all possible sets in which…


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In this tutorial, we will go through one very popular algorithm used in generating rankings for sports teams. The method which we will be studying is called Colley Ratings.

Before going into depth, lets first understand why are these ranking systems required. Will a simple win-loss ratio not be enough? To answer this, let’s go through an example. Consider there is a tournament with 4 teams playing in it and following are the results, and final table of the tournament standings so far.


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The Mirror of Erised from Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone

As in Harry Potter saga, we are surrounded by unknown Death Eaters (read Hackers) who are trying to attack poor Potter (read Client / Data) for one reason or another. Some time they want data (like Soccer’s stone or Prophecy in Order of Phoenix) or sometimes they just want to kill / corrupt Potter to fend off a threat / competition. In either case, we need to protect our Data and Deep Learning model from such kind of Dark Attacks.

A regular Deep Learning model is very prone to attacks as it usually collects huge amount of data in a…


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Demystifying Drone Dynamics!
  1. Components
    Although most of us are aware how a quadcopter / drone looks, a generic picture (It’s of a drone called Crazyflie from bitcraze) of drone is shown above. It consists of 4 motors, control circuitry in middle and Propellers mounted on its rotors. For reasons described in below section, 2 of the rotors rotate in clockwise (CW) direction and remaining 2 in counterclockwise (CCW). CW and CCW motors are placed next to each other to negate Moment (described in next section) generated by them. …


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In Part 1, we left after deriving basic equations for a Kalman filter algorithm. Here they are stated again for easy reference.

A. Predict:
a. X = A * X + B * u
b. P = A * P * AT * Q
B. Measurement
a. Y = Z — H * X
b. K = ( P * HT ) / ( ( H * P * HT ) + R )
C. Update
a. X = X + K * Y
b. P = ( I — K * H ) * P

We will be coding…


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In this series, I will try to explain Kalman filter algorithm along with an implementation example of tracking a vehicle with help of multiple sensor inputs, often termed as Sensor Fusion.

Kalman filter in its most basic form consists of 3 steps. A) Predict — Based on previous knowledge of a vehicle position and kinematic equations, we predict what should be the position of vehicle after time t+1. B) Measurement — Get readings from sensor regarding position of vehicle and compare it with Prediction C) Update — Update our knowledge about position (or state) of vehicle based on our prediction…

Percy Jaiswal

“I have no special talent. I am only passionately curious.”

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