Thank you Lee for sharing you experience. The challenges that entrepreneurs try to solve in Africa are complicated. They range from providing social services that functioning governments in developed world offer their citizenry to innovations that make life better for all. In my view this requires deep thinking and understanding the local context, cultural dynamics etc something that expat start-up entrepreneurs lack the patience or incentive to invest in. This leads to a “cut and past” solutions informed by silicon valley experience and other innovation paradigms. The tragedy..there is an established “ecosystem” that supports this state of affairs — The venture capital investors are expats, they find it easier to understand and trust expat start-up, and other ivy-league educated locals. The real start-ups, with solid business models..different from what taught in an MBA class are ignored…with reasons such as..they lack experience, the skill level is low etc.