The Poincaré Conjecture, formulated in 1904 by the French mathematician Poincaré, remained one of the most challenging open questions in the twentieth century, until it was proven in 2002 by Grigori Perelman. It has been considered by the Clay Mathematics Institute as one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems that, if ever solved, would grant a one-million dollar prize. Grigori Perelman was attributed a Fields Medal for « his contributions to geometry and his revolutionary insights » that led to his outstanding proof. He refused both the prize and the medal. My researches showed me that the history of the conjecture and the mathematical path that led to Perelman’s proof is, besides related, at least as interesting as Perelman’s peculiar personality and particular conception of how Mathematics should be conceived and studied. …

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