This is not just a Twitter problem. It’s a problem on any social network with any sort of critical mass. I’ve seen this cycle play out over and over again across many services and several decades. It also happens in person, but people get more social cues that this sort of behavior is not acceptable and either knock it off or suddenly find themselves without many friends.
I would argue the problem isn’t with any of these social networks, the problem is with us, the humans that use it. Some clearly find joy in imposing their world view on others to the point of abuse. Many cannot stand the thought of their world view being challenged, much less be wrong. Lots and lots of squabbling is the result.
Maybe the services can do more to provide those social cues to participants in such conversations that they are not socially acceptable. That said, the fact this is even required is only a symptom of a much larger problem, one technology alone is ill-equipped to solve.