A Throughout history, there have been instances in which people have been unwilling to accept new theories, despite startling evidence. This was certainly the case when Copernicus published his theory — that the earth was not the centre of the universe.

  • startling: extremely unusual and surprising

a startling discovery

startling revelations in the Sunday papers

B Until the early 16th century, western thinkers believed the theory put forward by Ptolemy, an Egyptian living in Alexandria in about 150 A.D. His theory, which was formulated by gathering and organizing the thoughts of the earlier thinkers, proposed that the universe was a closed space bounded by a spherical envelope beyond which there was nothing. The earth, according to Ptolemy, was a fixed and immobile mass, located at the centre of the universe. The sun and the stars, revolved around it.

  • western thinkers: Nhà tư tưởng phương tây
  • spherical envelope: vỏ hình cầu
spherical envelope nè.
  • a fixed and immobile mass: một khối lớn bất động (ko di chuyển),cố định
  • revolve around(v) xoay quanh

C The theory appealed to human nature. Someone making casual observations as they looked into the sky might come to a similar conclusion. It also fed the human ego. Humans could believe that they were at the centre of God’s universe, and the sun and stars were created for their benefit.

  • appeal (v) kháng cáo

He said he would appeal after being found guilty on four counts of murder.

Ông nói ông sẽ kháng cáo sau khi bị buộc tội về bốn tội giết người .

  • Đoạn C này cho thấy cái EGO của bọn hồi xưa to vãi

D Ptolemy’s theory, was of course, incorrect, but at the time nobody contested it. European astronomers were more inclined to save face. Instead of proposing new ideas, they attempted to patch up and refine Ptolemy’s flawed model. Students were taught using a book called The Sphere which had been written two hundred years previously. In short, astronomy failed to advance.

The Sphere — New York
  • contest (v)

a dispute between the two countries about the border tranh chấp giữa hai nước về biên giới

the latest dispute over fishing rights with China tranh chấp mới nhất về quyền đánh bắt với KHỰA

  • Dispute (v)

disputed territory tranh chấp lãnh thổ

The issue remains hotly disputed vấn đề vẫn đang bị tranh cãi gay gắt .

Rosie Le ở đây Dispute với Contest có như nhau ko ạ?

  • more inclined to: nghiêng hơn về
  • to patch up and refine: vá và tinh chỉnh
  • flawed: thiếu sót
  • SAVE FACE có nghĩa là ‘to avoid humiliation’ /hjuːˌmɪliˈeɪʃn/ or ‘to retain reputation and the respect of other people.’

Như vậy, SAVE FACE có nghĩa: ‘tránh được sự nhục nhã, bẽ mặt’ hoặc ‘giữ lại danh tiếng, sự tôn trọng từ người khác.’

Nói một cách ngắn gọn là ‘giữ thể diện.’

Ví dụ: Please help me with my work so that I can save face in front of my co-workers.

E In 1530, however, Mikolaj Kopernik, more commonly known as Copernicus, made an assertion which shook the world. He proposed that the earth turned on its axis once per day, and travelled around the sun once per year. Even when he made his discovery, he was reluctant to make it public, knowing how much his shocking revelations would disturb the church. However, George Rheticus, a German mathematics professor who had become Copernicus’s student, convinced Copernicus to publish his ideas, even though Copernicus, a perfectionist, was never satisfied that his observations were complete.

  • assertion /əˈsɜːʃn/ = claim (n) quả quyết
  • shook (v) lay, lung chuyển I’ll shook up the world lol
  • reluctant /rɪˈlʌktənt/ (v) lưỡng lự, miễn cưỡng

My mother was reluctant to admit she was wrong. :)

reluctant agreement: thỏa thuận miễn cưỡng

  • shocking revelations: những tiết lộ gây sốc
  • perfectionist /pərˈfekʃənɪst/người cầu toàn
  • perfectionism: chủ nghĩa hoàn hảo (You need to get the fuck rid of perfectionism every time start-up, Let’s upgrade them step-by-step, like Iphone )

F Copernicus’s ideas went against all the political and religious beliefs of the time. Humans, it was believed, were made in God’s image, and were superior to all creatures. The natural world had been created for humans to exploit. Copernicus’s theories contradicted the ideas of all the powerful churchmen of the time. Even the famous playwright William Shakespeare feared the new theory, pronouncing that it would destroy social order and bring chaos to the world. However, Copernicus never had to suffer at the hands of those who disagreed with his theories. He died just after the work was published in 1543.

  • went against: đi ngược lại
  • superior /suːˈpɪriər/ to all creatures /ˈkriːtʃər/: Cao hơn tất cả các sinh vật khác
  • playwright /ˈpleɪraɪt/ nhà soạn kịch

G However, the scientists who followed in Copernicus’s footsteps bore the brunt of the church’s anger. Two other Italian scientists of the time, Galileo and Bruno, agreed wholeheartedly with the Copernican theory. Bruno even dared to say that space was endless and contained many other suns, each with its own planets. For this, Bruno was sentenced to death by burning in 1600. Galileo, famous for his construction of the telescope, was forced to deny his belief in the Copernican theories. He escaped capital punishment, but was imprisoned for the rest of his life.

  • bore the brunt of: chịu gánh nặng

Ordinary citizens will bear the brunt of higher taxes.

The oldest parts of the town bore the brunt of the missile attacks.

  • wholehearted with: hết lòng với

I was wholeheartedly with you why you do not realize it?

  • imprisoned /ɪmˈprɪzn/(v) = jail (v) bỏ tù

Lê Văn Luyện was imprisoned for the rest of his life due to gold robbery

H In time however, Copernicus’s work became more accepted. Subsequent scientists and mathematicians such as Brahe, Kepler and Newton took Copernicus’s work as a starting point and used it to glean further truths about the laws of celestial mechanics.

  • Subsequent # Previous
  • glean thu thập: /gli:n/(giấy tờ, thông tin )

These figures have been gleaned from a number of studies.

I The most important aspect of Copernicus’ work is that it forever changed the place of man in the cosmos. With Copernicus’ work, man could no longer take that premier position which the theologians had immodestly assigned him. This was the first, but certainly not the last time in which man would have to accept his position as a mere part of the universe, not at the centre of it.

  • Cosmos /ˈkɑːzməs/= universe vũ trụ
  • premier position: vị trí hàng đầu = heading position
  • theologians nhà thần học

Questions 28–34
The text has nine paragraphs, A-I.
Which paragraph contains the following information?

28. the public’s reaction to the new theory

29. an ancient belief about the position of the earth

ancient: /ˈeɪnʃənt/ xưa, cổ

30. Copernicus’s legacy to the future of science

31. How academics built on Copernican ideas

32. An idea which is attractive to humans

33. Out-dated teaching and defective research

34. Scientists suffer for their beliefs

Look at the following statements and the list of people below.
Match each statement with the correct person.

35. He, among others, used Copernicus’s theories to advance scientific knowledge. Newton

36. He proposed an inaccurate theory based on the work of early philosophers. Ptolemy

37. His attitude to the new theory was similar to that of the Church.

William Shakespeare

38. He was killed because of his belief in the new theory.


39. He was responsible for Copernicus’s ideas being made public.

George Rheticus

40. He had to go to jail because he believed in the new theory.


— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —


28 A F

29 C B

30 I

31 H

32 B C

33 D

34 G

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