Leadership in organizations
1.What is a leader?
Person or function(rank) that holds a dominant or superior position within its field, and is able to exercise a high degree of control or influence over others
2.Two major types of leaders
Formal leader (manager)
Officially in front of his/her group. Followed because of his/her position.
Informal leader (emergent leader)
Accepted as leaders by his/her followers. Followed because of his/her personality.
3.Relationship between leadership and management
The nature of management — A process of achieving organisational goals by engaging in the four major functions of planning,organizing,leading and controlling.
“ While management includes focus on planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling; leadership is mainly a part of directing function of management.Leaders focus on listening, building relationships, teamwork, inspiring, motivating and persuading the followers” — de pe net (suna foarte bine cred ca asta ii :) )
4.Stereotypes related to workforce (de pe net am gasit)
Despite the advances of women in the workplace over the last several decades, stereotypes about women are prevalent in many offices.
Age-related stereotypes are prevalent in workplaces that employ people of a wide range of ages. Younger employees might believe that older employees are incapable
The website Law Teacher reports that racial stereotypes are common because popular culture often perpetuates these beliefs.
5.Big five Culture or CAOEE
as a discipline examines the way that human behavior is different and/or similar across different cultures and there are:
openness to experience (the extend to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas.), conscientiousness (the extend to which a person is responsible and achievement oriented.), extraversion (the extend to which a person is outgoing versus shy.), agreeableness (the extend to which a person is friendly and approachable), and Emotional stability (vs neuroticism) (the extend to which a person has appropriate emotional control.)
6.The characteristics of culture ( OC )
-(or the funny way: ROMU PC face MG RC — ii o prescurtare de la tigan-ul(ROMU) cu calculator(PC) scoate sunteul MG RC “”)
- Risk tolerance — The degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive,innovative and risk-seeking.
- Open-system focus — The degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment.
- Member identity — The degree to which employees identify with the organisation as a whole rather than with their type of job or field of professional expertise.
- Unit integration — The degree to which units within the organisation are encouraged to operate in a coordinated interdependent manner.
- People focus — The degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organisation.
- Control — The degree to which rules, regulations and direct supervision are used to over see and control employee behavior.
- Means-ends orientation — The degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve those outcomes.
- Group emphasis — The degree to which work activities are organised around groups rather than individuals.
- Reward criteria — The degree to which rewards such as salary increases and promotions are allocated according to employee performance rather than seniority, favoritism or other non-performance factors.
- Conflict tolerance — The degree to which employees are encouraged to air conflicts and criticisms openly.
7.Two biases five factor model of personality
Basic biases in person perception (cred ca asta ii :) ):
Selective perception — People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background,experience,and attitudes.
Implicit personality theories — Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together.
Biases in attribution (nu asta) :
Actor-observer effect — The propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behavior differently
Self-serving bias — The tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for failures.
8.The motivating process personality and OB
approach the revised model
Cognitive dissonance: A feeling of tension experienced when certain cognition s are contradictory or inconsistent with each other.
Cognition s: Simple thoughts or knowledge that people have about their own beliefs,values,attitudes,and behavior.
Dissonance theory: Engaging in behavior that is not supported by our attitudes might indeed lead us to change our attitudes to reduce the tension produced by inconsistency.
To teach the new behaviors, Goldstein and Sorcher recommend:
- Modelling of correct behaviors » videotapes.
- Role-playing of correct behaviors » trainees get a chance to actually practice the desired behaviors.
- Social reinforcement of role-played behaviors » trainers and fellow trainees provide reinforcement (usually praise) for correct role-playing performance.
9.Types of power
10.choosing a leadership style
“The leadership style you adopt in different situations can influence both how well your group accomplishes its goals and how well it maintains itself. Your leadership style in a given situation consists of your behavior patterns as you deal with the group.” — de pe net