Adding peephole optimization to GCC
x = (a * b) + (c * d) - e;
_1 = a * b
_2 = c * d
_3 = _1 + _2
_4 = _3 - e
x = _4
x = (a / 2) * 2;  // assume 'a' is unsigned
t1 = a / 2;
t2 = t1 * 2;
x = t2
sudo apt install build-essentials flex bison
sudo apt-get build-dep gcc
mkdir gnu-toolchain
cd gnu-toolchain
git clone
cd gcc
# Make a *separate* build dir, which is sibling to gcc/
cd ..
mkdir stage1-build
cd stage1-build
../gcc/configure --enable-languages=c,c++ --disable-bootstrap --disable-multilib
nohup make -j$(nproc) >err 2>&1 &
double f(double x)
return (__builtin_sin(x) * __builtin_sin(x))
+ (__builtin_cos(x) * __builtin_cos(x));
double g(double x)
double t1 = __builtin_sin (x);
double t2 = t1 * t1;
double t3 = __builtin_cos (x);
double t4 = t3 * t3;
return t2 + t4;
;; Function g (g, funcdef_no=1, decl_uid=1909, cgraph_uid=2, symbol_order=1)g (double x)
double t4;
double t3;
double t2;
double t1;
double _6;
complex double sincostmp_8;
<bb 2> [local count: 1073741825]:
sincostmp_8 = __builtin_cexpi (x_1(D));
t1_2 = IMAGPART_EXPR <sincostmp_8>;
t2_3 = t1_2 * t1_2;
t3_4 = REALPART_EXPR <sincostmp_8>;
t4_5 = t3_4 * t3_4;
_6 = t2_3 + t4_5;
return _6;
(plus (mult (SIN @0) (SIN @0))
(mult (COS @0) (COS @0)))
(if (flag_unsafe_math_optimizations)
{ build_one_cst (TREE_TYPE (@0)); }))
  1. simplify denotes, that the thing is a pattern, which consists of two parts: match, condition and replace.
  2. match: The match condition is the expression starting with (plus …). The compiler matches the incoming TREE expression or statements in basic-block against this pattern, and if pattern matching succeeds, it would replace that by the sequence from replacement part.
  3. mult denotes the multiplication operator written in lower-case. Built-in functions like sin and cos are denoted by upper case.
  4. @0, is a so-called “capture”, which is used to represent an operand, or the “leaf” of the expression. In our case, @0 would be x.
  5. The condition (if …) is an actual C condition embedded inside the pattern. This is a kludge, since ideally we want pattern definitions to be only defined with the DSL, but getting down to C becomes necessary when the pattern language isn’t expressive enough, or we neeed to access some other stuff like flag_unsafe_math_optimizations in above case. The transform is gated on the flag to be conservative.
  6. Finally coming to replacement part, this can either be a pattern language construct enclosed within (…) or a C expression enclosed within braces { … }. In above example, there’s no construct in pattern language to build tree node, so we “fall back” to C code to construct a tree node of constant 1 with function build_one_cst. The TREE_TYPE macro yields the type of ‘x’, which in our case is double, but could also be other float variants.
static bool
gimple_simplify_273 (gimple_match_op *res_op, gimple_seq *seq,
tree (*valueize)(tree) ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED,
const tree ARG_UNUSED (type), tree *ARG_UNUSED (captures)
, const combined_fn ARG_UNUSED (SIN), const combined_fn ARG_UNUSED (COS))
/* #line 5004 "../../gcc/gcc/match.pd" */
if (flag_unsafe_math_optimizations)
gimple_seq *lseq = seq;
if (dump_file && (dump_flags & TDF_FOLDING)) fprintf (dump_file, "Applying pattern match.pd:5005, %s:%d\n", __FILE__, __LINE__);
tree tem;
tem = build_one_cst (TREE_TYPE (captures[0]));
res_op->set_value (tem);
return true;
return false;
f (double x)
double D.1917;
D.1917 = 1.0e+0;
return D.1917;
Visiting statement:
t5_6 = t2_3 + t4_5;
which is likely CONSTANT
Match-and-simplified t2_3 + t4_5 to 1.0e+0
Lattice value changed to CONSTANT 1.0e+0. Adding SSA edges to worklist.
marking stmt to be not simulated again
g (double x)
double t5;
double t4;
double t3;
double t2;
double t1;
<bb 2> :
t1_2 = __builtin_sin (x_1(D));
t2_3 = t1_2 * t1_2;
t3_4 = __builtin_cos (x_1(D));
t4_5 = t3_4 * t3_4;
return 1.0e+0;
g (double x)
<bb 2> [local count: 1073741825]:
return 1.0e+0;




Love podcasts or audiobooks? Learn on the go with our new app.

Recommended from Medium

CS373 Spring 2021: Brian Wang, Blog #7

Get Hands-On with Decentralized Relational Data

Day 1: CRUD and Table Administration


It’s a (point-)free world

Flask網頁框架學習筆記 — 網頁連接資料庫(含Mysql新增資料庫) #Day 7

.NET: Running Test Cases against a Database [Part 1]

7 Reasons You Should Enroll in a Coding Boot Camp

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store
Prathamesh Kulkarni

Prathamesh Kulkarni

More from Medium

removeDuplicates: For every sequence of consecutive identical items in a, retain only one item of…

Do more with Git’s log command.

Solving the n-queens problem with brute-force search

A mask (an abstraction).

I tried PyScript and why you shouldn’t? Running Python as a front-end language is not worth it!