The island of Paxos, after which the Paxos consensus algorithm is named. Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 4.0

Distributed systems courses frequently introduce the Paxos and two-phase commit (2PC) protocols in quick succession. On one hand, this is a reasonable educational choice, as Paxos and 2PC are both examples of consensus algorithms used in the real world. On the other, it leads many students toward the dangerously incorrect…


As the amount of data managed by an organization grows, the difficulty of managing and querying that data grows as well: more databases, more query languages, more gotchas to keep in mind and avoid. Beyond “fits on my laptop” data scale, database-agnostic querying is a necessary technology that allows engineers…


Just a few days ago, Dropbox open-sourced PyAnnotate, a Python library that observes the execution of a Python program and automatically outputs Python type annotations. PyAnnotate greatly simplifies the process of using a type-checker (e.g. Mypy) with a legacy codebase.

Meanwhile, Kensho engineers have been hard at work preparing to…


supported_python_version += 1. Check out what the GraphQL compiler can do in our previous post!

Ever since we open-sourced the GraphQL compiler, we’ve been hard at work making it better, easier to use, and available for use in more projects. Today, we’re proud to announce that starting with version 1.1.0, the GraphQL compiler project supports both Python 2 and Python 3.

Other features you’ll find in version 1.1.0:

  • Built-in, robust GraphQL pretty-printer, modeled after Python’s built-in JSON pretty-printer: python -m graphql_compiler.tool
  • Made @fold directives more powerful by relaxing some of the restrictions on directives that can be used within a @fold scope.
  • More informative error messages for various invalid queries.

If you like our project, give us a star on Github, tweet at us, or just give us a clap right here on Medium!


For nearly a year now, Kensho has been using GraphQL in a highly unusual way — by compiling GraphQL queries directly into a single, optimized graph database query. By hiding the complexity of the underlying database behind an expressive and easy-to-use GraphQL layer, we have been able to prototype and…

Predrag Gruevski

System Architecture Engineer @Kensho // GraphQL compiler author // @MIT alum // rocket nerd, hockey player, not from around here 🇲🇰

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