The Love of Linux Chapter 15: Lessons Learned

When we went on the MBA trip to the Orient, after visiting Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and mainland China, encountering many cultures, business’ and ways of doing business, our host professors got all of the students into a room and had us put all of our impressions and ideas from the trip on a couple of easels. The entitled the session “R”essons “R”earned. A common trait in all Asian cultures is that they have a hard time pronouncing “L”s in English. Instead of the “L” they would almost always say an “R”. Since we were there to observe such commonalities among cultures and businesses, our professors had captured a common speech trait in all the Asian cultures we had visited. I for one had learned more in that trip than the entire two years of schooling. Some may say that without the schooling, I would not have been perceptive enough to see and absorb as much. I do not doubt the truthfulness of that statement, but I learn from seeing and doing. This trip to the Orient made an important impression on me and the session we held did help to capture in my mind many of the items I had learned.

The eight years I was involved in the commercialization of Linux has had even more impact on my life. We were truly privileged to be in the middle of a truly disruptive technology that has and will change the industry and the world. We were privileged to see behind the corporate curtain and see the bowels of the Industry. We were in the board rooms and saw and heard much more than what was publically made available. Much of what we saw and experienced was incredibly negative. My attempt in including some of that information in this book was not to dwell on the negative but to shine a light on the learning which was priceless to obtain. The lessons learned were far more painful and yet at the same time more enjoyable and rich. As human beings, we unfortunately seem to learn more from negative experiences than from positive. We were incredibly privileged. So much happened in these years and Caldera was in a totally unique position in the formation of the industry. We were able to dance with the giants and see many of the forces at work. In addition, while many books have been written on some of the lessons that can be learned from Linux that I included in this book when I wrote the first draft nearly 10 years ago, the impact of Linux and Open Source have not fully reached their apex. The far reaching affects of free have not been fully felt by the economy or even in the digital market place. For example, the pressure to deliver products and services for free or next to free will continue for all things digital as Chris Anderson stated, but they will spread to non-dgitial industries because of increased globalization, innovation and competition. Similarly, the motivations of why people want to contribute to Linux have yet to be fully explored in a business setting as many of the principals can and should be applied in these highly competitive times. Developing people, platforms and partners may be the only effective way to compete long term.

Having been privileged to participate in the process of trying to making Linux a business success, I would like to reiterate and share some of Ressons Rearned in hopes that they might help others trying to navigate through the business world many call and we can personally attest is a vicious jungle.

We did not achieve what we set out to achieve, primarily because of lack of leadership at a critical time, but we did lay the foundations for the commercialization of Linux. We had helped create an industry and participated in something that is changing the world. However, the real benefits of Linux and Open-Source have yet to be realized. The real business benefits do not lie in the great operating system or Open Source Licenses. The real benefit lies in the Lessons that can be learned from Linux and Open-Source and how they can be applied to business. As I mentioned in the text, new books and studies have and will continue to come out proving that business has fundamentally changed as a result of the Internet and Open Source. Open source and the Internet are symbiotic. They fuel each other. The Internet provides the collaboration environment and the open source technology like Linux facilitates broader distribution of the Internet by making it economically feasible that in turns creates a broader community to collaborate. This symbiotic platform also breaks down traditional barriers in distribution that disrupts underlying businesses assumptions and paradigms. It also attacks businesses that do not evolve and embrace the new paradigm.

As well documented in the book “The Long Tail” and “Free: The Future of a Radical Price,” these technologies will fundamentally change the way we do business and interact with each other on a global basis. The real benefit, however, is not the technology or how it is developed, but the principles behind it. Open source, collaboration, the Internet and the constantly doubling of technology, frees the power of the individual. When only the few and the privileged could get published; now nearly every one can. When a company learns to truly unlock the full capacity and imagination of their people, enabling them to do the right thing at the right time for the right reason, they will allow them the freedom to pursue their dreams without forcing them up a corporate ladder. The company that achieves this will create a new paradigm and thrive in the brave new world. The lessons of Linux go far beyond how to develop great technology, they are lessons for how to survive and thrive in an entirely new world. Someday, the world will point back to this paradigm and recognize it as being a fundamental shift of similar significance as the Industrial revolution. Nearly all of us at Caldera believed that Linux was more than just a great technology. Those who worked to make that vision come true were for ever changed by the experience and we did indirectly have had a major influence on an industry and the world.

Follow Your Heart or Reach for the Unreachable Star

My father and I both loved the play Man of La Mancha. Don Quixote, though many thought was crazy, pursued a dream, he followed his heart. In the process, he changed lives, both his and others. The book Built To Last refers studies the businesses that have lasted over 100 years. Everyone of them was driven by a Big Harry Audacious Goal or BHAG, something that compelled and motivated everyone in the company. The BHAG in many ways defined the company and created the culture. I heard Dick Williams, former CEO of Digital Research and current CEO of Wily, say once that he tells his employees if they have a chance to change the world, they need to take it no matter what. He said he has had a couple of times where things he worked on have made a major impact on the world and it has made all the difference in his life. I could not agree with him more.

One of the pitfalls in pursuing a dream is to become fanatical. I believe that the essence and safety in life is containing in the principle no more and no less. Many people become fanatical around causes. They get caught up in the moment or the movement itself. They become infatuated with a certain idea or concept and exclude the whole. Soon the idea or concept becomes all consuming. Others do too little. They get caught in tradition and in the way things have always been. They find it very hard to change or except change. In fact, they often fight it because it seems to threaten them. The power of Linux and open source is not just about business, it is about change.

Nearly everyone who started out with Caldera in the beginning did so because they felt almost compelled to do so. Most of them were not fanatics, they just saw in Linux a chance to change the industry. They had seen how the industry had come under the strangle hold of a monopoly power. That power had misused the term business to be “the end justifies the means.” The sad thing that I have witnessed in “Business” is that most of the companies who criticize the “monopoly” are only jealous that it is not their company who has the industry paying tribute to them. They nearly all conduct their business in the same way, “the end justifies the means.” The other way to categorize this philosophy of business is win/loose. If you win, I loose because there are limited resources. Hence, I must do everything in my power to see that I win at any cost. The fallacy of this model is it is based on a fallacious premise that resources are limited. The reality is that the resources of the mind are infinite.

Many of those who rallied around Linux saw it as a way to fundamentally change the industry. Some have inaccurately felt that it was “business” that was the evil empire or that commerce is fundamentally bad. Because of the examples that are so rampant in industry, I hardly blame them for coming to that conclusion. However, it is a false one. Business and financial success can and does corrupt. The age old saying: “Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely;” seems to be what most blindly pursue in business but not always. True business is captured in Charles Dickens “A Christmas Carol.” In the interview between Scrooge and his deceased business partner Jacob Marley. Scrooge tries to console Jacob by stating that he had been a very good businessman. Jacob Marley’s response I have found to be the truth about business “Mankind should have been my business.”

I have been criticized over the years by some who are more fanatical in their views as a parasite on open source, because I wanted to make Linux a successful business platform. Their criticism, I believe comes the fact that many businesses are not what true business should be. True business should be something in which all parties involved in a transaction are made better off. Some have called this win-win-win. There are many misconceptions that abound and are even taught in major business and legal schools and negotiation classes around the world that if someone wins, you loose. In a win/lose negotiation, everyone looses.

Those in the Open Source community, who feel that those who have tried to create successful business out of Linux and other open source initiatives are parasites, fail to understand that in order to have the freedom to continue to develop; you must have enough financial success to maintain your independence. Someone has to pay the bill. Collaborative work can produce technology, but producing and successfully marketing products and solutions takes some money. The beauty of capitalism is that it allows the individual to reap the rewards of his efforts and thus maintain self-respect and independence. Socialism is forced, legally enforced sharing. This breeds mediocrity and enslavement. If Linux cannot be self sustaining as an Industry, it will be dependent upon the products that do make money or it will become a niche solution. Nearly all of the Linux distribution companies have spent millions of dollars promoting Linux. I am not aware of any Linux company that is getting rich off of Linux, even Red Hat has made very little in comparison with other companies that have been market leaders in the past. Making money is not bad because it allows Linux to be self-sustaining and independent. Some feel that it is ok to make money on the services. The problem with services alone is that they do not scale. As the software industry moves towards online maintenance and subscription services, that look and feel a lot like products, then Linux and Open Source will have a sustainable business model. But just doing professional services and support will not be enough to fuel any kind of significant growth in the Linux Industry. The challenge for Linux may be that the larger players, IBM and Oracle, may not want a Linux company to become too successful because they fear having to deal with another Microsoft.

We had a dream to change the world to improve our industry and provide an alternative operating platform. We felt open source could play a vital role in that change. While Caldera, now SCO, changed its course and did not reach its potential, Caldera, the Linux developers and other Linux vendors did change the world. The vision for making Linux the predominate ISV platform in the industry that we had at Caldera is being realized. A recent Gartner report entitled “2006 Predictions: The Effects of Open-Source Software on the IT Software Industry” states:

  • By 2010, 90 percent of Global 2000 organizations will have formal open-source acquisition and management strategies (0.8 probability).
  • By 2008, OSS solutions will directly compete with closed-source products in all software infrastructure markets (0.8 probability).
  • By 2010, open source will be included in mission-critical software portfolios within 75 percent of Global 2000 enterprises (0.7 probability).
  • By 2008, 70 percent of Unix ISVs will make Linux the first priority port (0.8 probability).

We staged a major evolution. Caldera or SCO did not stick it out to reap the benefits of their labors, but the collective Open Source team made up of those very talented individuals at Caldera, other Linux providers and throughout the industry made a significant contribution that has yet been fully realized. We pursued a dream that has and will continue to change the world. I believe the principles Open-Source has and will teach the industry may cause change far more profound than even the software and open-source development techniques every will. When we can capture the true power of individuals by empowering them and enabling them to be the best they can, real business can and will take place. You have to follow your heart and allow others to do the same.

You sow what you reap

Business is and always will be about people, trust and the relationships formed in the course of doing business. Those who walk away from a win-loose negotiation temporarily on the win side may walk away with more money (sometimes millions of dollars) in the short term, but they will be the poorer in the end. They walk away having betrayed themselves and their own humanity. They fail to realize that there is another eternal, unbreakable truth called the law of the harvest. That law states that what you sow, you will eventually reap. I have tragically watched men sell their souls, or maybe more accurately, their humanity to the all mighty dollar. They violate friendship, trust, and integrity, simply to get more money or achieve their goal at all costs. Some think it weak to approach a business transaction, honestly. To sincerely try to negotiate a fair and equitable contract or business arrangement, will only result in someone taking advantage of you. Many misinformed and misguided businessman will take advantage, as Caldera was taken advantage of over the years. While it is a truly vanishing trait, may I simply state that it is not weakness but strength to be honest in all your dealings. I salute those who still can conduct their business affairs on a handshake because of their inner integrity. I have come in contact with a few of these men and women in business and they are like diamonds in a sea of coal. Rather than succumbing to the pressure of doing poor business, because everyone else is, they have let that pressure bring out the integrity of their soul.

The biggest mistake of business, whether as a buyer, seller or employer or employee, is that we like to create a separate standard. The phrase, “business is business” or “that’s business” as if business were a different standard, is a lie. Mankind is our business. Many in business want to treat partners, employees, and employers as something to satisfy their own selfish desires rather than as truly human beings. They do not allow the people around them to be human, only instruments to achieve a goal. Nowhere is this more dramatically displayed than in Scrooge’s treatment of Bob Crachet before and after his change in heart brought about by his interaction with the three spirits.

There are no short cuts. Some feel that business is business or what ever you do is ok as long as it is legal or you don’t get caught. What is morally correct or basically treating others, employees, customers or business relationships the way you would want to be treated is old fashion, naïve or out of date. Another way to put it is the end justifies the means. Another way to couch this philosophy is that there are no absolutes in life. I have listened to some of our top politicians stand up and ridicule anyone that believes in absolutes. Fortunately, history and science are proving the existence and importance of absolutes. The 10 commandments are not suggestions. They are the foundation of a happy productive life. The reality is that no matter how technology is changing our world and will yet change our world, we will always deal and interact with people. There is nothing out there worth losing your integrity to obtain. The industry and the economy are too small to burn bridges. Being able to sleep at nights is priceless. Knowing that while people may not like you or what you do, they know that you are doing the best you can with what information you have. As every parent will tell you, it is not about being liked by others, it is about maintaining their trust through your own integrity.

As I look back on the nine plus years I have been involved with Linux and Open Source, it is the people was privileged to know like Ray Noorda, Linus Torvalds, Jon “Maddog” Hall, Mark Bolzern, Ted Cook, Bob Frankenburg, Bob Young, and countless others that I have learned from and had the privilege to associate with. Even more it is the dear friends that I have worked with Ed Donakey, Dean Taylor, Nick Wells, Benoy Tamang, Kenneth Bergenthal, Bob Bench, Kathy Martens, Stefan Provast, Ralf Flaxa and all who participated in making the Caldera dream a reality. I cherish the memories and the friendships that were forged in pursuing the dream. At the end of the day, it is all about people and the relationships you form. Real wealth lies in the relationships and not the money. What you sow, you will reap.

The Negative Things in Life are Just a Nudge in the Right Direction

Often times it is from the negative things in life that we either learn the most, or it is only through them that certain positive things can happen to us. Caldera never would have become a company if Novell had completed the Corsair product. I would have never been the President and CEO of the company if the company had not split over economic pressures. I do not think that the Linux companies would have voluntarily come together to form UnitedLinux if the economy had not taken a turn for the worse. Sometimes the reason for the bumps that forces you to change direction in your life is not always apparent for many years to come, but I have come to realize that there is very little chance in life. Everything has a purpose. The real key is to have the right attitude so that you can see the purpose and stay the course.

Caldera put Red Hat on the map and yet Caldera would have never have gone public if Red Hat had not gone public first. Sometimes the reason behind the events is apparent almost immediately. Other times it takes more than a life time, but always they become apparent in time. Some may take this principle to an extreme and think that if something happens to either good or bad; it is a direct result of their actions. Sometimes things just happen. You really have so little control in life over what happens to you, but you have total control over how you will react. If you can look at set backs, not as obstacles or disappointments but as opportunities to adjust, or recommit, life and every dream you pursue becomes an adventure. The Mother Superior in Sound of Music states that whenever the Lord closes a door, He opens a window. The challenge in life and business is to keep looking for the window.

The industry has fundamentally changed

The book “Who Moved My Cheese” by Spencer Johnson is a great, thought provoking book. It points out that it is quite common to get accustomed to finding cheese in a certain place and ignore the fact that the supply of cheese is dwindling. Almost overnight, we wake up to find that the cheese is gone. There are many signs that go unnoticed that indicate the cheese is being depleted. I believe that Linux, Open Source and the Internet have fundamentally shifted where the cheese is. It is not evident to everyone, because they are still finding cheese in the traditional places, but the main supply is found somewhere else. Books like “The Long Tail” by Chris Anderson are starting to document the change in distribution methods, but more importantly, they are indicating the potential consequences of the physical changes. Our very culture is evolving quite rapidly. How we purchase, from where and what is available will shape the products and services of tomorrow. To quote Chris Anderson’s phrase, “the ants have megaphones.”

The ability to reach and understand the customer in new and profound ways is almost mind boggling but also life saving if you are a business who desires to survive and thrive. Thus, the ramifications of that change in what products and services must be produced in order to be successful are even more profound. How and what those products and services are or can become are also greatly enhanced because of Linux and Open Source. Linux and the commodity class PC have made the building blocks of technology affordable and flexible enough to greatly facilitate innovation and production. Chris in his book speaks of three major forces for change: 1) Democratization of production, 2) Democratization of distribution and 3) The ability find what you want. The democratization of production is simply anyone can now publish themselves without needing a publisher or label company. The democratization of distribution means anyone can be a supplier as long as they have a server or access to one. Linux and Open Source have played one of if not the most vital role in each of these major forces. Open Source has enabled very complex computer problems to become commoditized. The power of computing has been brought to the masses facilitating the spread of the Internet more broadly than thought possible. Linux and Apache are the very backbone and building blocks of the web. They have given voice and access to thousands because they have enabled inexpensive hardware to become the fabric of a global network. Without this infrastructure the democratization of production and distribution could not have taken place or continue to do so. This inexpensive extension of the Internet has allowed the masses to get on the net regardless of nationality or economic background and begin to express their views facilitating Chris’ third major force the ability to find what you want. Linux and Open Source are facilitating the development of the massive search engines that connect all the production to the micro cultures desiring specialization through this global network. These search engines are connecting what used to be totally disparate systems and data together and enabling the linking of separate data sources in the matter of seconds. This incredible freedom of expression and the fulfillment of individual, personal interests and needs are fundamentally changing our culture and how we interact with each other.

Communication systems like wireless and satellite are greatly reduced in costs because of Linux and Open Source enabling us to remain connected no matter where we are. I am sitting on a bus commuting to Salt Lake as I write this book. At the same time, I am doing my emails from work. Nearly 1/3 to ½ of my fellow passengers have laptops, Treos or some other device they are working on that are connected to the Internet. Linux and Open Source enable many of these devices or the servers they talk to. From somewhat small and seemingly insignificant things, great and almost unimaginable things are accomplished. The world has shrunk. We are all connected in ways we could have never imagined. Software and services are being developed using this infrastructure that will further break down cultural, geographic and even traditional economic barriers and social impediments. People are being empowered. The world is becoming of the people, for the people and by the people. This of course will scare many individuals and organizations who insist on control or believe that people are incapable of governing themselves. Linux and Open Source is the catalyst for this new age of expression for without them, the costs would be prohibitive. I cannot even begin to paint the picture of the extent of the change and forces Linux and Open Source have unleashed. They are like a genie that has been uncorked that is granting wishes all over the world. This is just what Linux has done for technology. The world has changed dramatically but the physical surroundings appear the same so few really see that things are totally different. The following quote from Tim O’Reilly underscores the subtlety of the evolution occurring on the web. A fundamental shift toward multimedia and interaction.

“This characterization of the current state of the Web is at times contended, and though the clear delineation between the first and second Webs is here admitted to be rather arbitrary, it still must be recognized that the Web is indeed evolving into a more interactive, multi-media driven technological space, and this understanding of the term is used in this paper. As O’Reilly (2005) observes in what is often cited as the seminal work on Web 2.0, personal web-pages are evolving into blogs, encyclopedias into Wikipedia, text-based tutorials into streaming media applications, taxonomies into “folksonomies,” and question-answer/email customer support infrastructures into instant messaging (IM) services.” O’Reilly, T. (2005). What is web 2.0? Retrieved May 18, 2006, from

The world and even the web we know has and will continue to change at a very rapid pace. Much of that change has and will continue to be facilitated by Linux and Open Source and commodity hardware. By enabling broader participation and collaboration, these building blocks of innovation will continue to fuel an already hyper environment. Several books recently written help explain just how much has changed, “Wikinomics” and “The Starfish and the Spider.” However, Linux in many ways started it all. Remaining viable in such a competitive, constantly changing world will be increasingly difficult. The challenges will be almost overwhelming. How will companies succeed? Many of the key answers as I have described in this book, also lie with Linux.

The Love of Linux is a Lesson about What People Want and Need and What will make Businesses Successful in a new Business Paradigm

The real lessons from Linux are yet to be learned by the industry. The lesson is not about how to produce better, more timely software with less money. The lesson is about people and what they are expressing by their love or commitment to Linux. The love of Linux is really a vote for freedom and creative expression. The infatuation with Linux is a vote for the ability to develop something that either truly meets a customer’s needs or scratches a developer’s itch rather than the expedience of the all mighty dollar. Linux and the Internet allow for immediate customer feedback and interaction. I am a strong advocate of using good business practices to run a business, but so often decisions that dictate the feature of a product are more political than truly dictated by either business constraints or true customer value.

The love of Linux may be a vote for true leadership rather than management. I believe the key reason Linux, is the dominate alternative operating system on Intel not BSD is Linus. People have no real problem following a true leader, but they will fight tyranny to their last breath. Corporate management must stop looking for ways to justify control and restraint and learn to lead. The passion for Linux and the Internet and its openness may be a vote for the less control even in the face of major change and uncertainty. Government and corporate business seem to fear and fight change rather than embrace and evolve with it when appropriate. The real lesson for business that comes from Open Source and Linux I believe is about freedom and expression. Allowing people to capitalize on their strengths and stay in positions that allow them to utilize those strengths without jeopardizing the financial growth. In the book, “Now, Discover Your Strengths,” by Marcus Buckingham and Donald O. Clifton, Ph. D., they mention a study conducted by asking over 1.7 million employees in 101 companies from 63 countries if they felt that they had the opportunity to do what they do best every day or feel that their strengths are in play every day. The answer was only 20%. “Most bizarre of all, the longer an employee stays with an organization and the higher he climbs the traditional career ladder, the less likely he is to strongly agree that he is playing to his strengths” (pg. 6). As mentioned in an earlier chapter, councils, not committees, may be a great way to accomplish this empowerment. Enabling groups of key individuals regardless of where they sit on the corporate ladder to participate in key projects and even lead them without having to be a manager. If the company can designate a lead that can not only make recommendations but decisions, they could help flatten the traditional hierarchical organizational structures and facilitate responsiveness to the industry and capture the creativity of your employees. The companies who learn to take the risk and empower their people where they have strengths, they will be successful.

Strategy, Creating Real Customer Value and Leadership are How to sustain a Competitive Advantage

Strategy, Collaboration and Delivering Real Customer Value are the answer. Strategy Requires Leadership. Leadership can only flourish when there is freedom and ability to take risk. To have that freedom, you must protect the ownership of the company, ensure the proper constitution of the board, and have the CEO both retain enough ownership personally and function as the Chairman of the Board.

That said, the value in a company does not come from a single CEO paid multiple times more than those really making the business happen. The value in a company will occur when each individual in their respective roles are true leaders and then share in the benefits of their labors. When individuals can bloom, blossom and prosper without being forced to leave their role or the company in order to find fulfillment.

A company’s management team comprising the chairman of the board, the board and the corporate management team must be unified and supportive of the strategy or it cannot be effectively completed. Consequently, the constitution of a board and the role of a chairman are absolutely critical especially when things do not go quite as planned. Keeping the ownership structure with the employees and management rather than with investors is absolutely necessary. With the ownership, rogue investors can be kept in check and the strategy can be executed. If the board and management are unified, they can develop a successful strategy and then stay the course when the storms hit.

With the freedom and ability to take risk, the organization can determine a strategy. What customer are they going to serve and what unique value can they deliver to that customer? Is there a sustainable market? Who are the competitors? The more specific the company can get in answering these questions, they greater opportunity they will have for success. The more unique actions they can take to deliver true value to their customer, the less chance a competitor can imitate them or confuse the market. These unique actions or decisions make up a unique strategy that nearly becomes impossible to duplicate. If the company is delivering real value to its customers, they will likely not want or need to choose a different product or service. This sounds so easy. In many ways, it is but the challenge comes when other opportunities present themselves that are not in line with the chosen strategy. This is where leadership becomes critical at all levels. They must be willing to stay the course; to make the necessary trade offs to be true to the strategy. The must demonstrate true leadership.

This does not mean that a company cannot change products or even customers in time. How many successful companies have ended up being what they set out to become? A company often reinvents itself three to four times as it evolves. The market is constantly evolving and changing. The cheese is constantly on the move. The key lies in empowering the people to respond to the change within the confines of a vision and strategy. Council together, analyze the information, involve those who have the most knowledge regardless of where they are on the corporate ladder and then make a decision. As you move forward, constantly monitor the success of the decision and be willing to modify and improve as more data becomes available. Stay true to the over riding vision and strategy but constantly listen and adapt. These are lessons that Open Source and Linux can teach the industry. Lead, empower, stay true to vision and strategy but listen to the market and the customer, and adapt. Create in essence a living, breathing organism that has the power to think respond and act. There really is no greater thrill than to see others capture a vision and make it their own. They make it uniquely better than even the originator envisioned. As each member of the organization adds their unique contribution and is rewarded for it, the organization as a whole becomes unstoppable. From what I have read, Goggle may be such an environment.

Understanding the customer, creating real customer value through linked actions that form a compelling strategy and having the leadership and vision to follow through and stay the course is how to be successful in this new, constantly changing, and highly competitive world. Since Linux was born in this environment and has been the catalyst for the growth of this market, much can be learned by studying, not only the operating system and Open Source and their methodologies, but also understanding and applying the principles and key motivations that drive Linux and apply those to business. In many ways, the love of Linux is an innate, human desire in everyone to contribute to something that is worthwhile, to be able to express themselves and have the expression listened to, added upon and valued. The love of Linux is the desire to truly help someone and deliver something to them that they really appreciate. This love has been unleashed on the world and it has and will change the very fabric of society. The opportunity for business is to somehow harness that love, not to control it, but to provide direction and vision. To somehow learn and apply the principles that allow their people to unite in a common cause and freely give of themselves to something they believe in. To develop the mindset to trust in the community and in the basic goodness of others rather than close up and protect, will be the challenge of nearly all management teams. The principles utilized by Linux and Open Source can be applied to business and then that business will prosper in an ever changing environment. This is the love and lesson of Linux. Linux has changed my life and whether or not you are aware it is changing yours. The real opportunity for change lies in understanding the principles that have made Linux and Open Source successful and applying them in business.

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