This is a brilliant article with a lot of truth.
However, all three methods will fail if they don’t try to capture ppl’s emotions. No one ever buys a product after reading the product description or company history.
I feel Apple with Steve Jobs was pretty successful with method #2 which really is the most cost effective. And in a way, Jobs was such a huge celebrity, they were really utilizing methods #1 and #2 quite effectively.
#1 is most effective and mostly costly and usually requires celebrities. The thing about celebrities is that the fans feels they know them and so they trust them. Nike does a great job by usually snatching the biggest athletes from each sport.
What a disaster when Pepsi tried method #3 with Kendall and BLM backdrop.
#3 is really using other ppl’s stories and if possible for free and probably a good way for a small company to get attention.
At the end of the day, everything is PR.
Truer words have never been spoken. As I write, there are million of ppl around the world in their basements coming up with brilliant inventions and apps but most of them will never be rich and successful because they don’t have the marketing power.