Systematics of Journal Publishing

Why should we publish? Many reasons to publish the research. Dissemination to academic society and the general public (54% 1st choice) is a common reason. Then, career prospects and promotions (20% 1st choice), improved funding (13% 1st choice), ego (9% 1st choice), patent protection (4% 1st choice), and others (5% 1st choice).

Components of a paper are title, authors, abstract, keywords (some journals), introduction, methods, results, discussion, references, and appendices (some journals). Sometimes need note like acknowledgments, financial support, and potential conflicts of interest. First, the title describes the contents clearly. Second, the authors write to make ensure recognition for the writer(s). Third, the abstract describes what was done. The abstract includes a summary of the background, the objective, material and methods, results, conclusion, and keywords. The objective is to report our findings and conclusions clearly and concisely as possible. Forth, keywords ensure the article is correctly identified in abstracting and indexing services. Fifth, introductions explain the problem. Sixth, methods explain how the data were collected. Seventh, results describe what was discovered. Eighth, the discussion section is to discuss the implications of the findings. Ninth, acknowledgment is to ensure those who helped in the research are recognized. Tenth, references are to ensure that previously published work is recognized. Last, appendices provide supplemental data for the expert reader.

Researchers think the good title to attract reader attention. The title must clear and precise including keywords. Contains advertisement of the paper. Avoid uncommon abbreviations and jargon. Search engines, indexing databases depend on the accuracy of the title and keywords. The structure of paper or scientific writing follows a rigid structure. Consequently, a paper can be read at several levels. Some people just will refer to the title. Others may read only the title and abstract. Others will read the paper for a deeper understanding.

How to decide the author’s team? The author’s listing only includes those who have made an intellectual contribution to the research (shown in most journals). Another reason is those who will publicly the data and the conclusions and who have approved the final version. Then, the order of the name of the authors can vary from discipline to discipline.

The introduction clearly states that the problem being investigated, a background that explains the problem and reasons for conducting the research. Then, summarize relevant research to provide context. Author state how the work differs from published work (novelty). Then, continue to identify the research questions you are answering. If required, briefly describe the experiment, hypothesis (es), research questions(s), general experimental design, and method.

In the method section, provide the reader with enough details so they can understand and replicate our research. Explain how the author studied the problems, identify the procedures followed, and order these chronologically where possible. If the method is new, explain the detail, otherwise, name the method and cite the previously published work. Include the frequency of observations, what types of data were recorded, material sources, etc. Be precise in describing measurements and whenever possible include errors of measurement of research design limits.

Results objectively present the author’s finding and explain what was found. Show that our new results are significantly contributing to the body of scientific knowledge. Follow a logical sequence based on the tables and figures representing the findings to answer the question or hypothesis. The figure should have a brief description (a legend), providing the reader with sufficient information to know how the data were produced.

Author more focus on discussion. The author must describe the results mean in the context of what was already known about the subject. Then, indicate how the results relate to expectations and to the literature previously cited. Explain how the research has advanced the body of scientific knowledge. Mention limitation of the study and do not extend your conclusions beyond what is directly supported by your results (avoid undue speculation). Then, outline the next steps for further study.

The author needs the essential ingredients to get a successful publication. Research: method, practices, and sources (clarity, reliability, relevance, and validity). Evidence: the heart of the paper, discoveries, results, and data (convincing, interesting, original, and useful). Argument: sustained, logical, and reasonable, meaningful, and important. As beginner, constructive, criticism, or correction from supervisor, advisor, experts are very crucial.

The first thing that we must do is the completion of the research. Preparation of manuscripts, such as the informed consent, statement letter, and title page. The preparation between one journal and the others is not the same, especially the rules of writing and reference style. Style and language refer to the journal’s author guidelines for notes and on style. Some authors write their papers with a specific journal in mind. Others write the paper and then adapt it to fit the style of a journal they subsequently choose.

Key elements of publishing are ethical issues, style, and language, the structure of a paper, article submission/ journal section, publisher process/ peer review. The first step is the submission of the manuscript on the journal account. Select the journal carefully, consult to advisor/ experienced colleagues, choose the right fit (range and specialization), and a realistic chance of being accepted. Read the aim and scope of the journal, also mind the publication cost. Follow the guidelines in the notes for authors and include everything they ask (it makes the editor’s job easier). The article should not be submitted to more than one journal at a time. Do not undervalue and overvalue of our work. Citation and impact factors are helpful but use this information wisely.

After submission then waiting for the assignment, and peer review. 3 levels of mistakes in the peer-review process. First, formatting, structure, and reference style. Second, language and clarity. Third, content includes methodology, data, argument. After the review process then continued with the decision to get rejection or revision. If the author gets revision then the author must correct the manuscript base on the suggestion. Then continue with re-submission and re-review. After the review finished, the reviewer will give the announcement of acceptance or rejection. If acceptance then payment if any. Mind the cost (the color is more expensive than black and white). Final go-to publication. If rejection, mind what can we learn and improve, decide to revise or publish in a lower indexed journal?.

Source: Guest Lecture Airlangga University October 2019

Student: Rima Wirenviona and Anak Agung Istri Dalem Cinthya Riris

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