On behalf of the Polkadot team,

The Rococo-V1 Parachains Testnet is up and running. Rococo is a public testnet, maintained by Parity Technologies along with the Polkadot developer community, aimed towards testing both the parachains consensus process itself as well as parachains built by the community and their interactions with each other. Earlier this year, we launched Rococo V0, which was based off of our prototype parachains code. Now, we’re introducing Rococo-V1, based on the latest version of parachain consensus — the same code that will run on Polkadot and Kusama. …


Thanks to John Habermeier and Jack Platts for feedback and editing.

The base level of human society functions due to the principle of reciprocity: acting benevolently towards others without any direct expectation of a reward with the understanding that the favor will be returned by someone, someday. Alexis de Tocqueville, within his 1835 study of American Democracy, referred to this as “self-interest, properly understood”. When reciprocity is applied broadly, everyone benefits.

For various reasons, the social fabric of the western world has worn thin over the last century. Warm reciprocity has been replaced by cool trust mediated ever more strongly…


This article is the first in a series of articles exploring consensus and finality in Polkadot.

Anyone spending enough time studying blockchains has run into the concepts of consensus, finality, and perhaps even “safety.” These concepts often represent a high barrier to entry when it comes to understanding how blockchains really work. So let’s start with a primer on consensus.

One common misconception about blockchain consensus is that it’s about producing a valid history of transactions. In fact, anybody can make a sequence of transactions on their own computer which is valid. The hard part is getting everyone to agree…


Polkadot is a blockchain for scalable decentralized computation and interoperability. In this article, we are going to examine one of the main parts of the network: the parachain.

Blockchains today come in a pretty standard form consisting of two parts. The first part is the consensus algorithm, which provides security. The second part is the state machine, which provides the aspects of the chain that are worth obtaining security over. Ethereum, Bitcoin, Zcash, and others are all secured by variants of Proof-of-Work consensus, but the kinds of transactions and accounts they handle — the things that make up their unique…

Robert Habermeier

Not Automaton. Co-Founder @PolkadotNetwork

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