Kress and van Leuwen

Analytical processes are ways of relating what are referred to as ‘participants’ in a given image. The two main participants are the “Carrier”, the whole of the image, and the “Possessive Attributes”, the attributes of the image displayed. Many different types of images can be considered analytical, preferably ones of a lower modality (less emphasis on the life-like aspects of images). Minimizing an image’s modality makes it much more susceptible to analyses, minimizing the use of color, rendering the background secondary or irrelevant, and labeling possessive attributes. Limiting modality isn’t necessarily what defines an analytical image and the amount of modality depends on what kind of representation is being used. What defines the analytical process is an emphasis on the default, the lack of symbolic representation, and the lack of narrative per se.

Some analytical processes can be unstructured. In these unstructured processes, an emphasis is put on the possessive attributes, but not necessarily how the attributes relate to one another. In such cases, the carrier is usually represented as abstract in the sense that from the vantage point of the viewer, the parts or attributes could theoretically be related to one another in many ways.

Temporal analytical processes present a concept of providing a timeline narrative, of changing, of changing and evolving events. An example would be that of an occupied territory as the ‘carrier’ and a picture of gradual usurpation of land to the present time which would be the ‘possessive attributes’. How this temporal narrative is expressed also plays a central role to the audience not always horizontal, but vertical or even what the author describes as geometrical symbolism, were timelines can ‘go downhill’, using colors in telling the story of the ‘evolution of man’.

The Exhaustive analytical process entails the possessive attributes that are assembled ‘together to make up a complex shape’, whereas, the inclusive analytical process lack an adequate amount of possessive attributes which don’t completely define the carrier. The exhaustive process involves the sender and receiver of messages as the encoder and decoder which reflects images that we see from their parts to the whole. The inclusive process is compared to the example of the map of a particular city rather than a map of the entire state or country with all cities.

Conjoined exhaustive structures are described as possessive attributes being connected disproportionately. The author likes the concept to a pie chart where each possessive attribute has its own quality and meaning. However, compounded exhaustive structures are possessive attributes that are linked together while maintaining each of their identities, such as a diagram of a car with its connected and labeled parts.

To be topographical means accurately representing the dimensions and spatial relations of an object and its components. This can be understood through the example of topographic maps with the dimensions of the land, and its distance from other Possessive Attributes. This idea of topographic can be applied to analytical structures. Analytical structures are read as accurately representing the logical’ relations between participants. For instance, the way in which participants are connected to each other would be considered in a topographic analytical structure rather than the actual physical size of the participants or their distance from each other.

This section discusses charts and how like topographical visuals they are drawn to scale. The scale is not based on the physical dimensions of the participants but on the quantity or frequency of aggregates of participants which are taken to be identical. It illustrates this with a pie graph showing the population of Australia divided into components. The size of the portions of the graph are related to the relative number of people in each category of the population. Quantity is translated into relative size, although quantity can also be translated into quantity itself.

Two- dimensional charts create a conjunction between analytical structures and a timeline for the sake of analysis along am ordered timescale. One-dimensional structures can be represented as though they were two-dimensional structures, and in doing so show a sense of progression or decline which does not apply. This too can happen in language. It gives the example of turning a phrase like “people learned” into nominals such as “people’s learning” which can then become actors in new events (“the new learning spread”). This allows historians to analyse history as successive periods in which comparable things go on. These structures serve to establish stable, conceptual orders.

Analytical processes can be unstructured, temporal, or exhaustive. An unstructured analysis interprets “possessive attributes” as the defining sets of a whole. The temporal process correlates these “[sets of] participants (possessive attributes)” with time, and interprets them in stages. An exhaustive approach breaks the participant, “Carrier,” down into the most possessive attributes that comprise it, in order to analyze the whole in terms of the smallest parts. Accurately representing these attributes can be done by either drawing them to scale, thus giving the participants and attributes a proportionate scale; or by scaling the attributes with others in an equal and accurate way. Topological accuracy connects the carrier and possessive attributes unequally, but interconnects them in a way that they are still accurate. A consideration would be the “concrete[ness]” of the participants of an analytical process, and is classified under “Abstraction.”

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