Types of Research


Research is described as the thoughtful analysis of studies pertaining to a certain issue or topic utilizing scientific methodologies. Research is a methodical investigation to characterize, explain, forecast, and manage the observed phenomena, according to American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie. Both inductive and deductive techniques are used.

What is the purpose of research?

There are three main purposes:

Exploratory: As the name implies, researchers perform these investigations to delve deeper into a set of queries. The solutions and analyses might not provide a resolution to the alleged issue. It is being done to address brand-new, unexplored issue areas. The groundwork for more thorough data gathering and analysis is laid by this exploratory procedure.

Descriptive: It concentrates on gathering data in order to increase understanding about current concerns. Research that is descriptive analyzes the actions of a sample population. The study just needs one variable to be conducted. Descriptive studies’ three main goals are to describe, explain, and validate the results. For instance, a research was done to determine if top-level management executives today had a moral claim to a sizeable portion of the company’s profits.

Explanatory: To comprehend the effects of certain modifications to current standard operating procedures, causal or explanatory research is carried out. The most common form is conducting experiments. For instance, a research that is done to determine how rebranding affects consumer loyalty.

Research Aims

The major objective or overall purpose of a research study is typically referred to as the research aim. The goal of a project is typically stated in concise, direct sentences. An illustration might be: “To examine factors related to relationship violence.”

Your aim should be made up of three parts that answer the below questions:

  1. Why is this research required?
  2. What is this research about?
  3. How are you going to do it?

Research Objectives

The results you want to get from your study are called its aims. Many studies have many goals for their study. Strong research objectives can assist your company in achieving its overarching objectives. Research objectives serve as the direction for the whole research effort, including data collection, analysis, and conclusions. Research objectives can direct you through the research process by assisting you in hone in on the subject of your study and important factors.

Difference Between Aims and Objectives

  • While research objectives concentrate on how the target will be accomplished, research aims concentrate on what the research effort is supposed to accomplish.
  • While research objectives are particular, research purposes are often more general.
  • Research goals concentrate on the immediate, short-term effects of a project, whereas research aims concentrate on the long-term effects.
  • A research goal should be written as a numbered list, however a research purpose can be expressed in a single sentence or brief paragraph.

Characteristics of Research

  • It gathers new knowledge or data from primary or first-hand sources.
  • It is logical and objective.
  • It endeavors to organize data in quantitative terms.
  • Research is patient and unhurried activity.
  • It uses certain valid data gathering devices.
  • It is an exact systematic and accurate investigation.

Types of research methods

The two main categories of research methodology are qualitative and quantitative.

Qualitative methods

method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions.

Quantitative methods

methods deal with numbers and measurable forms.

Types of research

Different types of research studies are useful across industries and fields, including:

  • Biology, chemistry and other science-related fields
  • Government offices and agencies
  • Education
  • Business

Types of research From the Viewpoint

Classified from 3 main perspectives,

  1. Application (pure or applied research)
  2. Objectives (descriptive, correlational, explanatory or exploratory research)
  3. Inquiry mode (qualitative, quantitative or public Survey research)


  • There are two major categories when examining a research endeavor from the standpoint of its application: pure research and applied research.

In pure research, theories and hypotheses are developed and tested that provide intellectual challenges to the researcher but may or may not have immediate or long-term practical applications. As a result, this type of study frequently entails evaluating hypotheses that incorporate highly specialized and complex notions.

The majority of social science research is applied. In other words, the research techniques, procedures, and methods used to collect information about different aspects of a situation, issue, problem, or phenomenon are used so that the information gathered can be used in other ways, such as for policy formulation, administration, and the improvement of understanding of a phenomenon.


Descriptive Research

  • Make an effort to methodically define a circumstance, issue, phenomena, service, or program.
  • Give details on actions or circumstances (such the living conditions in a neighborhood) or illustrate a person’s attitude toward a problem (elections, favoritism )

Correlational Research

  • To identify or confirm the presence of a link, correlation, or dependency between two or more situational elements or factors.

Explanatory Research

  • To explain the connection between 2 components of a situation or phenomena and why it exists.

Exploratory Research

  • To investigate a region in which little is known.
  • To explore the feasibility of doing a certain research project.

Inquiry Mode

Qualitative Research

  • Descriptive, Place a strong emphasis on the depth of knowledge, meanings, points of view, and sentiments.
  • seeks to provide more conceptually insightful views.
  • rather of making numbers, seek genuine understanding.

Quantitative Research

  • Quantifiable, with a focus on being exact, impartial, and generalizable.
  • Measure the amount or quantity of something (phenomenon).
  • The question “how many?” or “how frequently? How many are there? Etc.
  • Results are presented as percentages, figures, or statistics.



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