You basically constructed your own theory of Constructivism. Piaget’s theory discussed this in depth. However this technique, while wonderful in one to ones or very small groups is resource intensive and hard to pull off with larger groups.
For that you should look up Vygotsky’s theory of co-constructivism. The difference here is you structure activities where the students work together and solve tasks in groups, learning from each other in the process.
Your example also demonstrated the theories of assimilation versus accomodation. Basically it is easier to learn when you have some prior knowledge (assimilation) rather than starting off with nothing (accommodation). There is a lot more to this, but that is the Readers Digest version. Student ability also helps them to assimilate knowledge. A good teacher always does some sort of pre-assessment on his students first so he knows where they are starting from.
I would also like to add one important point. The students have to value what you are teaching. You touched on this with your notation example. Your brain will try to remember only the stuff it thinks is important or interesting. This is why you can remember lines from movies you saw years ago but you just forgot what your partner told you to pick up from the supermarket on the way home.
You have to get your students to think what you are teaching is important.
There is so much more to teaching than this. Resourcing, collegial relationships with other teachers, the importance of teacher expectations and reflection, cultural capital….
It seems you have an interest in it so why not take some formal lessons in theory or technique?
Anyone can instruct. Few actually teach.