Auditing the First 100 Pages of the Top 100 Websites 🔎

When you’re browsing BBC news, or streaming your favourite Youtube videos, I doubt you’re thinking about the site’s accessibility. We all frequent the same sites but are they setting good standards of accessibility and performance? Does a site’s popularity correlate with these standards? Let’s find out 💪.

I decided to audit 100 pages per site. This would be a good amount of data to give each site an average. As I’m sure you’ll agree, assessing 10,000 pages manually would be far too time consuming. Luckily, with a little automation and the power of lighthouse we can audit them all with a click of a button instead.

Not interested in the code? Check out the results here.

Disclaimer: This was a fun experiment. Results here are by no means a complete or comprehensive assessment of the audited sites. All views expressed in this article are my own and do not represent the opinions of any entity with which I have been, am now or will be affiliated with.

How I Audited 10,000 Web Pages

Puppeteer

One of my favourite npm packages that I have discovered in the last year is puppeteer. Puppeteer is a Node library that provides an API to control chrome over the dev tools protocol. It can run headless (in the background), so you don’t even see it working away.

this.browser = await puppeteer.launch();
this.page = await this.browser.newPage();
await this.page.goto("http://sld.codes/");
await this.page.screenshot({path: `screenshot.png`, fullPage: true});

A super simple example of the power of this tool can be seen above. By running this snippet, a chromium instance will open in the background, navigate to my personal website, and take a full page screenshot of the page.

Clustering

You can also run a cluster of puppets! This allows you to tackle larger problems asynchronously with multiple instances of puppeteer workers. A simple example of how this works can be found in the readme:

const { Cluster } = require('puppeteer-cluster');

(async () => {
const cluster = await Cluster.launch({
concurrency: Cluster.CONCURRENCY_CONTEXT,
maxConcurrency: 2,
});

await cluster.task(async ({ page, data: url }) => {
await page.goto(url);
const screen = await page.screenshot();
});

cluster.queue('http://www.google.com/');
cluster.queue('http://www.wikipedia.org/');

await cluster.idle();
await cluster.close();
})();

Lighthouse

There is no better tool out there for automated auditing. Most people are familiar with its integration into the chrome dev tools but you can also run it using a node CLI. All I needed to do to get it going was to point it to the puppeteer instance.

var { lhr } = await lighthouse(this.page.url(), {
port: new URL(this.browser.wsEndpoint()).port,
output: "json",
quiet: true,
});

Sourcing the top 100

You can define the top 100 sites in lots of different ways. For this experiment, I settled on Top 100 most visited by search traffic. I sourced the list here. With a little regex and a few multi cursors, I got the table on the page into JSON. I could then feed it to the cluster.

The Script

The web-crawler I created was fairly basic. Upon landing on a webpage, it would look through and search for any <a> tags and add the hrefs to a first-in first-out queue. I used a set to hold visited urls to ensure I didn’t audit the same page twice.

let newHrefs = await page.$$eval("a", as => as.map(a => a.href));
newHrefs = newHrefs.map(url => url.replace(/\/$/, ""));
newHrefs = newHrefs.filter(
url =>
!toVisit.includes(url) &&
!visited.has(url) &&
psl.get(extractHostname(url)) === hostName
);

It turns out sites don’t always use <a> tags. This sometimes meant that my crawler would finish for any given site before reaching 100 pages. I didn’t notice this was the case until the audits had finished. If I were to run this experiment again I would make sure to improve the crawlers ability to search sites.

To audit all 10,000 pages, took 21 hours and 32 minutes.

That sounds like a crazy long time, but it works out to 7.74 seconds per audit. It should be noted that my internet is no where near fibre optic speeds and I am pretty sure that my provider throttled my connection. But, I don’t think this subtracts anything from the results when most of the world is still using 3G.

Visualising The Information

Time to turn 10,000 JSON files into something useful 😅.

Parsing 1.83gb of Audit Data

I ended up with 1.83gb of audit data in JSON. I have been using JSON in react and Gatsby projects for years but never have I had to import JSON of this magnitude. It was a headache. First thing I tried to do was increase the memory that node had available. Turns out I couldn’t give it enough.

It suddenly occurred to me that while these reports contained some really useful information, they also contained 3000 lines that I was not interested in. I decided to write a script that would prune the data down to the fields in the JSON that I really needed.

This reduced 1.83gb down to 50.9mb. Much more manageable!

Gatsby + GraphQL

I used the gatsby-transformer-json package to pull all the JSON into my Gatsby project. Then used this query to source the data:

{
allAllJson {
edges {
node {
categories {
accessibility {
score
}
performance {
score
}
best_practices {
score
}
seo {
score
}
}
id
requestedUrl
}
}
}
}

Build was a little slow, but it worked!

Visualisations

I used the recharts library, to create scatter graphs, showing the correlations. I was worried that it would not be able to handle soo many data points but I was wrong. Recharts smashed it 💪.

The Results

In the coming days, I intend to summarise the data I’ve acquired. In the mean time, you can check it out here.

Check out the results here.

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