The Working Of Ultrasonic Machining Or USM

This is a process where the work piece material is removed by repetitive action due to impact by abrasive particles. The erosion occurs by the abrasive particles which are carried by a liquid medium in the slurry form. A vibrating tool is used to give the impact. The tool gets a vibrating motion from the vibrating horn.

Ultrasonic Machining Principles

Working principle of Ultrasonic Machining or Ultrasonic Impact Grinding is described here. The shaped tool due to the actions of mechanical vibration cause the abrasive particles dipped in slurry to get hammered on the stationary work piece. This leads to micro-indentation fracture on the material.

Small abraded particles are removed along the periphery which is perpendicular to the direction of vibratory tool. On removal of material, a cavity is formed. The abrasive particles erode as with the continuation of the machining process. Hence, fresh abrasive particles are needed to be supplied in the machining zone. Abrasive particles in association with the liquid is given to the m/c zone and it confirms the removal of the worn out materials.

Machining Time

The machining time depends on the frequency of vibration, material properties and size of grain. The amplitude of the vibration might vary from 5 to 75 µm and frequency might vary from 19~25 kHz. A static force is needed to hold the job against the machining tool.

Ultrasonic Machining Process


1. It is used to drill circular or non-circular holes on hard materials like carbides, stones, ceramics and other brittle substances.

2. Non-conducting materials like ceramics, glass, and semi precious stones can also be machined.


1. Little slower than traditional process of machining.

2. Creating deeper holes is difficult owing to restricted movement of suspension.

3. It is tedious to select the perfect tool geometry for making hole of a certain dimension.

4. Higher tool wear due to continuous flow of abrasive slurry.


1. It is used to machine hard and brittle materials like tungsten diamond, carbide and glass.

2. Wire drawing dies of tungsten carbide can be drilled by this process.

3. Both circular and non-circular holes can be created.

4. It is proved a success in machining silicon quartz, geranium, and synthetic ruby etc.

With this I conclude. To know more, keep visiting this space.

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